Plastic Ban Essay | Essay on Plastic Ban for Students and Children

Plastic Ban Essay

Plastic Ban Essay: Plastic Ban Essay is an important topic for students to comprehend. Plastic has traditionally been given freely to customers who purchase products from a vendor. These plastics were single-use plastics that are made from low-density polyethylene plastic (LDPE). It provided a convenient and hygienic way of transporting goods. However, plastic bags used non-renewable resources in their manufacturing processes such as crude oil and natural gas. Moreover, they introduced problems with the disposal and other environmental problems.

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From an academic perspective, a plastic ban essay is an easy topic to write if students can familiarize themselves with the facts. However, to secure more marks, students must present their content in a proper way, ensuring all formal writing conventions are integrated into their essay. To secure maximum possible marks, students must make sure their essays are engaging to the reader and must provide some values or key takeaways.

Furthermore, students must ensure that their essays are easy to read and understand by their target audience without sacrificing quality. We have provided the following sample essay based on the aforementioned criteria. It is designed to be easily comprehended by the students and recalled in the exam. Moreover, the essay ensures that all the formal writing conventions are integrated into the essay.

Plastic Ban Essay in English 500+ Words

Introduction on Plastic Ban Essay

Plastic has been around for nearly a century, finding application across various fields and industries. In fact, if we take a look around us, we can find at least one or two items made entirely of plastic. For a short period of time, plastic, especially low weight plastic bags were considered as the most used product in the world. Customers were given these lightweight plastic bags when they purchased a product from any vendor. Moreover, since these bags were extremely cheap to manufacture, they were given free of cost to the customers. However, the environmental implications of plastic can be observed now.

Effect on the Environment Due to Plastic

Lightweight plastic bags were traditionally made of low-density polyethylene plastic or LDPE. These plastic items were primarily produced using petroleum or natural gas, which are non-renewable resources. It also became increasingly difficult to dispose of as it was not biodegradable. Over time, these plastics quickly accumulated in landfills, thereby reducing its efficiency. One of the solutions proposed for resolving this problem is recycling – however, it is not widely implemented especially in India.

Effect on Climate by Usage of Plastic

As stated previously, the production of plastic uses non-renewable resources like coal and natural gas. This directly contributes to global warming and increased carbon footprint. Using non-renewable resources directly contributes to the production of greenhouse gases, which can change the dynamics of the planet. In the long run, this can have disastrous consequences on our planet – from extreme weather patterns to instability in the ecosystem. Humans will be drastically affected if the ecosystem becomes unbalanced. There would be widespread shortages of food, which can directly affect an economy. Continued production and usage of plastic will only worsen the situation.

Resolutions About Plastic

As stated previously, the biggest problem of plastics was its inability to decompose. However, researchers found that a number of microorganisms and certain animals were able to break down and degrade polythene, the main component of plastic.

A bacteria called Pseudomonas fluorescens had the ability to degrade nearly 40% of the weight of plastic bags in less than three months. In 2014, a Chinese researcher stumbled upon a moth called the Indian meal moth that had the ability to digest plastic. Careful analysis of the moth showed that the insect had not only digested the plastic but also significantly degraded it.

Currently, there are two solutions to curb the usage of plastic – charges and bans. Charges ensure that the cost of the plastic bag is to be borne by the consumers. This not only discourages the use of plastic bags but also generates an additional source of income. The ban method outright bans the use of plastic bags, however, this method is rather hard to implement in practice.

A country like India does not have the required resources to strictly enforce the ban, hence this method may not be as viable as the latter. Another method is to recycle plastic bags, however, according to recent statistics, just 5% of plastic bags return to recycling facilities – the rest end up on the streets where they become litter.

Plastic Bags Should be Banned in India

Plastic bags that are under 20µm in thickness have been banned since 2002. However, the enforcement of the ban is almost non-existent. The primary reason why plastic bags less than 20µm is banned is due to the fact that cows mistake these bags for food and they end up eating it. Consequently, this blocks up the cow’s intestines and results in its death.

In 2016, the Ministry of Environment passed a regulation banning the use of polythene bags less than 50µm thick. However, this ban was also poorly enforced. Interestingly, in the same year, Sikkim successfully banned the usage of all plastic – from plastic water bottles to plastic bags and polystyrene foam across the state. Hence, it was titled as India’s first fully organic state.

Conclusion on Plastic Ban Essay

Today, the repercussions of plastic were better understood than a decade ago. Hence, many countries have opted to outright ban plastic or at least recycle existing plastic. This act has led to reduced carbon emissions as well as addressing many other related problems. New discoveries and alternatives to tackle the problem of plastics will pave the way for a new generation in a much cleaner and greener planet. We soonly update Plastic Ban Essay in Hindi, English, Marathi, Kannada, Telugu.

FAQ’s on Plastic Ban Essay

Question 1.
Why are plastics banned?

Answer:
Most plastic items were produced using petroleum or natural gas, which are non-renewable resources – this directly leads to increased carbon footprints. It is also difficult to dispose of as it is not biodegradable. Hence, plastics are banned in many countries.

Question 2.
Are plastic bans effective?

Answer:
Many countries have successfully banned plastic. In India, Sikkim is the very first state to have completely eliminated the use of plastics.

Question 3.
When was plastic banned?

Answer:
Plastic was first banned in India in 2002.

Question 4.
Which plastic is banned in India?

Answer:
India initially banned plastics below 20µm in thickness. Later, in 2016, all polythene bags over 50µm in thickness were banned.

Question 5.
What are the negative effects of plastic?

Answer:
Plastic is manufactured using non-renewable resources like coal and natural gas. This directly contributes to global warming and increased carbon footprint. Moreover, plastic does not decompose easily, hence, it remains in the environment for a long time.

Population Explosion Essay | Essay on Population Explosion for Students and Children

Population Explosion Essay: Population Explosion is the sudden growth of the population over a short span of time. It is one of the major problems due to which the earth is losing its balance. It is increasing at an alarming rate in the country. India is the second country after China whose population rate is one thousand twenty-seven billion. If it is not controlled then India will beat China over the population growth by 2025. Also, many repercussions will happen like lesser resources, natural resources, poverty, unemployment, etc. As per the National Family Health Survey, the total fertility rate in India varies across different wealth quintiles.

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Long Essay on Population Explosion in English

As per the survey, the economically weaker section of the society in India has high population growth. The population can become the asset of the country. If the youth of the country has access to skill development, education, increased employment, etc. However, India has a high rate of unemployment in today’s world. Many Indian populations have no access to education, so illiterate. The Government of India has taken the burden of providing cooking fuel, electricity, drinking water, houses, and healthcare to all Indian populations. It has the aim of creating a $5 trillion economy.

The population growth in India cannot be sustained due to the limited geographical area. The development and availability of better medical science lessen the death rates and increases birth rates. This is the reason behind the population explosion. It has a major impact on the economic balance of the country. However, the government is not taking any initiative to control population explosion. It is a major issue for humans in today’s world. Read on to find more about essay on population explosion for class 8, class 9, class 10.

Reason for Population Explosion

There are many reasons for the Population Explosion. Let’s see the following factors and reasons for the Population Explosion.

  • Lack of women’s education and early age marriage are the main reasons. The high rate of illiteracy of women also causes population growth. As they are unaware of the birth control methods.
  • The life expectancy of people has increased to around 75 to 80 years than earlier. Developed medical facilities are increasing the life expectancy of people nowadays. Also, the quality and nutritious food, good living standards, hygienic, and sanitation facilities help in increasing life expectancy.
  • The unawareness of people and lack of family planning increases the birth rate rapidly. Moreover, the birth rate has increased more than the death rate.
  • Developed science and technology decrease the infant mortality rate. Mortality rate means the number of infants death below 6 months age.
  • Natural and man-made disasters are controlled by the advance early warning and evacuation processes that lead to a decrease in death rates.
  • Poverty is also a reason for the population explosion that leads to an increase in the birth rate. Several poor people think of their child as an asset who earns to support their family income at an early age.
  • Several families demand a male child that leads to an increase in the birth rate.
  • Universal marriage systems are also the cause of the population explosion. It means everyone is expected to get married in the country that leads to the growth of the population.

Impacts of Population Explosion

There are many impacts of population explosion as given below:

  • The Population Explosion impacts the natural resources and the social and economic development of the country.
  • It increases the unemployment problem. As the demand for jobs and employment opportunities also increases. To overcome this problem, many people are migrating to different countries for more job opportunities.
  • Overpopulation leads to the below poverty line. However, people of rural areas have no adequate knowledge of the overpopulation of the country. So, it leads to a high birth rate in the country.
  • Overpopulation in urban areas demands more civic services, health, transport, sanitation, education, and infrastructure. Fulfilling all these demands is not only challenging but also a burden in the inadequate economic resources.
  • Burning forests to bring more land for the cultivation of foods and make settlements for human living.
  • Burning of fossil fuels in vehicles, industries, and households form environmental pollution.
  • Misuse of water resources like wells, ponds, rivers, etc. causes water pollution.
  • Overpopulated countries need large quantities of consumer goods and products to meet their people’s needs.   It is not only challenging for them but also leads to poverty.
  • It impacts all the plans made for the development of the country as it goes haywire.
  • Inadequate resources lead to disputes and wars in countries.
  • It also impacts nature by bringing global warming, black holes, ultraviolet radiation, etc.
  • It impacts the standard of living of humans.

Population Explosion Prevention – How To Prevent Population Explosion

There are many ways to prevent the Population Explosion.

  • Several problems of earth can be controlled by controlling population growth.
  • It can decrease many problems like poverty, illiteracy, starvation, and unemployment.
  • The government can take initiatives to make awareness among people about the negative consequences of population growth.
  • Some campaigns should be implemented to aware people of birth control and family planning.
  • China’s one-child policy decreases the population growth.
  • India has also undertaken some measures to decrease the population.
  • Encouraging late marriages among people can reduce the birth rate, the population as well.
  • The reduction of the infant mortality rate can decrease the birth rate.
  • Women empowerment through skill development, education, financial inclusion, etc. So that they will become independent and free from the social constraints.
  • The government policies should focus on the promotion of girl children to prevent this problem. More like Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao scheme.
  • The availability of cheap and easy contraceptive tools to avoid unwanted pregnancies.
  • Strict legal rules should be implemented like having only two children, some punishment to people for more children, and rewarding people who adopt family planning.
  • Abolish gender discrimination to prevent overpopulation.

Conclusion On Population Explosion Essay

Population Explosion is the biggest problem which affects the society, the economy of the country and human life. The government must prioritize this issue as the growth rate varies due to the cultural, social, and economic diversity of the nation. Some of the government and non-government efforts lead to awareness among people about the control of the population. Even in many places, it has achieved great success. We all should join our hands together to fight against this issue and make our earth a better place to live. We soonly update population explosion in English, Urdu, Hindi, kanada.

FAQ’s on Population Explosion Essay

Question 1.
What is the Population Explosion?

Answer:
The Population Explosion is the sudden growth of population over a short span of time.

Question 2.
What are the reasons for the population explosion?

Answer:
The development and availability of better medical science lessen the death rates and increases birth rates. This is the reason behind the population explosion. Lack of education, early age marriage, women education, and family planning. Male child expectation, universal marriage, infant mortality rate, and poverty.

Question 3.
How population explosion impacts employment?

Answer:
Population explosion increases the unemployment problem. As the demand for jobs and employment opportunities also increases. To overcome this problem, many people are migrating to different countries for more job opportunities.

Question 4.
How population explosion impacts natural resources?

Answer:
Population explosion impacts natural resources. Like burning forests to bring more land for cultivation of foods and make settlements for human living. Burning of fossil fuels in vehicles, industries, and households form environmental pollution. Misuse of water resources like wells, ponds, rivers, etc. causes water pollution. It also impacts nature by bringing global warming, black holes, ultraviolet radiation, etc.

Question 5.
How population explosion impacts urban areas?

Answer:
Overpopulation in urban areas demands more civic services, health, transport, sanitation, education, and infrastructure. Fulfilling all these demands is not only challenging but also a burden in the inadequate economic resources.

Makar Sankranti Essay | Essay on Makar Sankranti 500+ Words Essay for Students

Makar Sankranti Essay

Makar Sankranti Essay: Makar Sankranti Essay is an important topic for students as it is usually asked in exams. Makar Sankranti is known by many other names across India such as Bhogi, Mokor Songkranti, Maghi, Bhogali Bihu, Makara Sankramana and Mela.

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Moreover, this festival is celebrated not just in India, other countries such as Nepal, Cambodia, Sri Lanka, Laos, and Thailand. The festival signifies the alignment of the sun to the Makara Rashi (zodiac sign: Capricorn). The festival is quite ancient, and it signifies the arrival of spring.

From an academic perspective, Makar Sankranti Essay is an easy topic if students are familiar with the traditions and practices of this festival. Moreover, students will have to elaborate clearly and accurately. Students will also have to follow formal writing conventions to ensure that the content is neat and presentable. Read on to find more about Makar Sankranti Essay in English for class 2, Class 3, Class 7.

Makar Sankranti Essay 500+ Words

Makar Sankranti Essay Introduction

Makar Sankranti is a famous Indian festival that is dedicated to God Surya or the Sun God. The festival marks the beginning of the harvest season for the people of India. The festival also coincides with the Sun’s alignment with the constellation of Capricorn. Moreover, the date of Makar Sankranti is set according to the solar cycle while most other Indian festivals are set according to the lunar cycle.

Makar Sankranti Dates

As stated previously, the dates for Makar Sankranti are set according to the solar cycle, hence, the dates usually fall between the solar month called Makara and the lunar month called Magha. These dates correspond to 14th January on the Gregorian calendar. However, it can fall on the 15th as well. The festival also marks the first month with consistently longer days.

Makar Sankranti Implications

Makar Sankranti is one of the most important festivals in India. It is also celebrated in places outside India such as Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka and even the Sindh community in Pakistan. Though celebrations vary according to the regions, the primary celebration is in the form of flying colorful kites. The festival also garners deep spiritual importance in India – people take a holy dip in rivers like the Ganga, Krishna, Kaveri and Godavari. The act of bathing on this day signifies the absolution of past sins.

People also pray to the Sun God or Surya, thanking him for all the prosperity in their lives. From an agricultural perspective, the festival signifies the time where crops have been sown and all the laborious tasks in the field are mostly over. Hence, it is time for socializing with family and friends.

Makar Sankranti Celebrations – How People Celebrate Makar Sankranti

Makar Sankranti is a pan-India festival, which means, it is celebrated all over India. One of the many traditional celebrations is kite flying – it is celebrated in many parts of India. Moreover, some states hold special celebrations called “Melas”, the most famous among these “melas” is the Maha Kumbh Mela. It is held in a cycle of 12 years at four important pilgrimage sites – Ujjain, Nashik, Haridwar and Prayag. In Karnataka, Makar Sankranti is considered as the harvest festival for farmers.

People adorn new clothes and exchange sweets and other confectionery with each other. In Andhra Pradesh, the festival is celebrated across four days. During this festival, the people of Andhra Pradesh discard old items and bring in new ones. People also adorn new clothes and showcase their cattle. In Gujarat, Makar Sankranti is known as Uttarayan and the celebrations last for two days. People fly colourful kites and adorn new clothes on this day. In Kerala, Makar Sankranti coincides with the Makara Jyothi.

Conclusion on Makar Sankranti Essay

Makar Sankranti is a revered festival celebrated throughout India. Celebrations vary by state, but nearly all of them fly colourful kites. The festival is also very sacred, with temples around the country performing sacred rituals and poojas. Most people also exchange sweets and adorn new clothes.  Some states celebrate the festival with a grand feast, containing countless food items.

Moreover, this festival is celebrated in many places outside India such as Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal. In West Bengal, this festival is also called Poush Sankranti because it falls in the Bengali month of Poush. Celebrations include creating a special sweet and worshipping the Goddess Lakshmi.

FAQ’s on Makar Sankranti Essay

Question 1.
Why is Makar Sankranti celebrated?

Answer:
The festival signifies the alignment of the sun to the Makara Rashi. The festival is quite ancient, and it signifies the arrival of spring. The festival also coincides with the harvest season, hence it is seen as the time to socialize and bond with family and friends.

Question 2.
What do we do on Makar Sankranti?

Answer:
Makar Sankranti is celebrated all over India. One of the many traditional celebrations is kite flying – it is celebrated in many parts of India. Generally, people celebrate the festival by adorning new clothes and exchanging sweets and confectioneries between family and friends.

Question 3.
What is the meaning of Sankranti?

Answer:
Sankranti is derived from the Sanskrit word “Sankranti”, which means the transmigration of the sun from one constellation to the next.

Question 4.
Where is Makar Sankranti celebrated?

Answer:
Makar Sankranti is predominantly celebrated in India. It is also a pan-India festival, which means nearly all states in India celebrate this festival.

Question 5.
When is Makar Sankranti?

Answer:
Makar Sankranti is set according to the solar cycle, hence, the dates usually fall between the solar month called Makara and the lunar month called Magha. This corresponds to 14 of January in the Gregorian calendar.

Essay on Peacock | Peacock Essay for Students and Children

Essay on Peacock

Essay on Peacock: Essay on Peacock is an important topic for students to learn. The main goal of the essay is to educate students about India’s national bird – the Indian peafowl or more popularly called the Peacock. This bird is native to the Indian subcontinent and was later introduced to many other countries. The peacock is a fairly large bird, with an average weight between 4-6 kilograms. The most unmistakable characteristic feature of the peacock is its tail – in ornithology, the tail of the peacock is called the train. It is quite large and colorful; however, only the males possess the train.

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From an academic perspective, writing an essay on peacock is rather easy, provided the student can recall the various characteristics and facts about the peacock. Moreover, students have to ensure that they present content in the right way – this includes following formal writing conventions, eliminating jargons and more. Students also need to ensure that they read through the essay and check for mistakes before submission.  Read on to find more about Peacock essay in English for class 4, class 5, class 6, class 8.

Essay on Peacock 500+ Words

Essay on Peacock Introduction

In India, the peacock is officially designated as the country’s National Bird. This is due to the fact that the peacock is native to the Indian subcontinent and is one of the most beautiful birds in the world. Males of this species have a large, fan-like tail that is usually used for courtship. Moreover, the peacock has significant cultural implications, from iconic representations, artworks, music, poetry, and dance. Moreover, the peacock has been associated with many Hindu Gods and Goddesses. Not just India, peacocks were adorned around the world as a symbol of beauty and ornamentation.

Scientific Perspective of Peacock

Technically, the males of this species are called peacocks, and the females are called the peahens. Males and females are collectively known as peafowl. The scientific name of the Indian peafowl is Pavo cristatus. The iconic species of peafowl that Indians recognize is the blue peacock or the Indian peacock. This species is endemic to India and Sri Lanka. Two more species of peafowl exist – the green peafowl and the Congo Peacock. The green peafowl is found in Burma, Java, and surrounding regions. The Congo peacock, as the name suggests, was discovered in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

The Indian Peacock – Features and General Characteristics

Size of a Peacock: The Indian peacocks are rather large birds, with an average length of 100-115 cm from beak to tail. Interestingly, the tail feathers often grow much longer than the entire bird, usually reaching lengths of over 200 cms. However, only the males of this species have the tail feathers. On average, the males weigh between 4 to 6 kilograms, and the females weigh between 3 to 4 kilograms. Peacocks are the largest birds in their family (Phasianidae), which includes turkeys, chickens, pheasants, and partridges.

Peacock Appearance: Indian peacocks have an unmistakable appearance – these birds have a metallic blue colour and a fan-shaped tail with colourful eye-spots (males only). Their long tail is called a train, and its primary function is thought to be courtship- that is, to attract females. The peacock’s head and neck area have bright, greenish-blue iridescent feathers. The peacock’s back has scaly-bronze feathers. The train (tail) is composed of many feathers – up to 200 feathers, with most of these ending in colourful eye-spots. The peahen’s colours are rather dull in comparison to the peacock. It does not have the elaborate tail feathers nor the brilliant, metallic blue feathers on its body.

Peacock Habitat: The Indian peafowl is found in India as well as Sri Lanka. The bird is generally found at elevations of 1800m and below. It prefers the moist and dry deciduous forests, but can also be found near human habitations, especially where water is common. Besides its native habitat, this bird has also been introduced in many other countries such as Mexico, the United States, South Africa, Indonesia, Australia, Portugal, Croatia and Mauritius. Interestingly, Indian peacocks have been spotted in much harsher environments such as Canada.

Feeding Habits of a Peacock: Indian peafowls are omnivorous, which means they eat seeds, nuts, insects and small reptiles and animals. Peafowls are also known to feed on small snakes if other sources of food are not available. In the Gir forests of Gujarat, the birds feed on the Zizyphus berries which have fallen on the ground. Around human habitations, the bird feeds on scraps and leftovers. In cultivated areas, it can feed on a wide range of crops.

Peacock Predation: Peacocks have many natural predators, such as wolves and foxes. Sometimes, large birds of prey, such as eagles and owls, also hunt peafowls. To escape, the bird flies into surrounding trees. Sometimes, domestic dogs also hunt peacocks.

The lifespan of Peacock: In the wild, peafowls are known to live for 15 years. However, in captivity, they can live for 23 years or even more.

Cultural Perspective of Peacocks: Peacocks have a significant cultural impact in India as well as many other countries around the world. The bird has been seen in many historic depictions such as rock sculptures, and stone engravings. In ancient Indian culture, the peacock is often associated with the Gods and Goddesses. For instance, Lord Krishna is often portrayed with a peacock feather in his headband. In Buddhist culture, the peacock represents wisdom. Its feathers are used as ornamentation and in many rituals. we soonly update essay on peacock in English, Sanskrit, Hindi, Gujarati, Urdu, Bengali, Tamil.

Conclusion on Essay on Peacock

The peacock is one of the most magnificent birds ever, with its bright, colorful plumage and even more colourful cultural implications. It is India’s national bird due to this very reason. It has also been depicted in music, dance, poetry, and many Indian traditions. However, humans have destroyed most of its natural habitat; hence, it is now classified as a vulnerable species. We need to ensure that the right measures are taken so that this fabled bird does not become extinct.

FAQ’s on Essay on Peacock

Question 1.
Why is the peacock our national bird?

Answer:
Peacocks have a significant cultural impact in India and are found in many depictions such as rock sculptures, and stone engravings. In ancient Indian culture, the peacock is often associated with the Gods and Goddesses. It was also easily recognized by the common man; hence it is our national bird.

Question 2.
What is interesting about a peacock?

Answer:
Indian peacocks have an unmistakable appearance – these birds have a metallic blue colour and a fan-shaped tail with colorful eye-spots. However, only the males have these long tails.

Question 3.
Are Peacocks a symbol of good luck?

Answer:
Yes. People have associated peacocks with the Gods and Goddesses for centuries in India.

Question 4.
What do Peacocks eat?

Answer:
Indian peafowls are omnivorous, which means they eat seeds, nuts, insects and small reptiles and animals.

Question 5.
Can peacocks fly?

Answer:
Yes, peacocks can fly just as well as other birds despite its massive tail.

Bhagat Singh Essay | Essay on Bhagat Singh for Students and Children

Bhagat Singh Essay

Bhagat Singh Essay: Bhagat Singh was an Indian Revolutionary and an icon of India’s struggle for freedom. His execution at the age of 23 transformed him into a hero of the Indian Independence Movement. His legacy inspired many Indian youths to follow in his footsteps.  Bhagat Singh’s actions were disapproved of by many, including Gandhi. His methodologies advocated violence, which was in complete contrast to the Non-Co-operation Movement.

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From an academic perspective, Bhagat Singh essay is an important topic for students to comprehend. The essay aims to educate how India got its freedom and the people who were responsible for it. Hence, students must be well-versed with the topic if they wish to secure more marks. Moreover, students will have to present the essay in such a way that it becomes interesting and engaging to the reader. They can achieve this by using simple language, avoiding jargon and presenting in bulleted points wherever possible. The following sample essay is created keeping all these aspects in mind.

Bhagat Singh Essay in English 500 Words

Bhagat Singh’s Early Life and Education

Bhagat Singh, popularly known as Shaheed Bhagat Singh, was born in 1907 to father Kishan Singh and mother Vidyavati in Lyallpur district, present-day Pakistan. Bhagat Singh’s family was politically active, with his father and his uncles taking part in the Indian Independence Movement.

Bhagat Singh joined the National College in Lahore in 1923. He took part in many extracurricular activities including theatrics and drama. He even won an essay competition organised by the Punjab Hindi Sahitya Sammelan, where he wrote about the problems faced in Punjab.

In 1926, Singh founded the Naujawan Bharat Sabha, an Indian socialist youth organization. This organization banded workers and peasants to rise against the British Raj and revolt. Eventually, he joined the Hindustan Republican Association, which had prominent individuals such as Chandrashekar Azad.

Singh also had a profound influence on the local youths, inspiring them to commit acts of violence against the British. The police became concerned and arrested Singh on the pretext that he was involved in a bombing that had taken place in Lahore.

Bhagat Singh Assassination Plot

Bhagat Singh wanted to avenge the death of Lala Lajpat Rai by the assassination of the superintendent of police, James A Scott. Singh believed that Scott was personally responsible for the death of Rai, though he had died of a heart attack.

However, in a case of mistaken identity, Singh shot and killed John P Saunders, an assistant superintendent of police, on December 17, 1928. His actions were condemned by many, including Mahatma Gandhi.

Bhagat Singh Aftermath and Escape

Singh fatally shot Saunders when he was leaving the District Police headquarters. After the assassination, Singh escaped through the DAV College entrance, which was across the road from the police headquarters.

In the ensuing pursuit, Singh shot a head constable, Chanan Singh, who eventually succumbed to his injuries. Bhagat Singh fled to his safehouse on a bicycle that was arranged nearby.  The CID launched a massive search, blocking all entrances and exit to the city. They also kept an eye on all youths leaving the city, scrutinising their identities.

Singh hid for two days, before calling Durgawati Devi, the wife of Bhagwati Charan Vohra, another freedom fighter. She agreed to help Singh escape Lahore by disguising themselves as a couple. Singh dressed up in western attire, shaved his beard and cut his hair. To conceal their real identity thoroughly, they carried a sleeping child and managed to successfully escape from Lahore.

Bhagat Singh Assembly Incident – 1929

In 1929, Bhagat Singh proposed a daring plan to the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA). Inspired by the French anarchist Auguste Vaillant, who bombed the Chamber of Deputies in Paris, Singh aspired to do the same.

Singh’s plan involved detonating a non-lethal bomb inside the Central Legislative Assembly.  The “decoy” motive was to protest against the Trade Dispute Act and the Public Safety Bill. However, the actual motive was to eventually get arrested and use the court appearance to publicise Singh’s cause.

Leaders of the HSRA initially rejected the idea, but eventually, they gave in and agreed that Singh was the best candidate for the job. On April 8th 1929, Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt threw two non-lethal bombs into the Assembly Chamber while it was in session. Though it was intended to be non-lethal, they ended up injuring a few participants. After the bomb was thrown, Singh threw the leaflets and shouted the slogan “Long live the revolution”, (Hindi: Inquilab Zindabad).

Bhagat Singh Arrest and Execution

Both men were immediately arrested and sent to prison where they awaited trial. Singh was found guilty of killing Saunders and was sentenced to life in prison. However, the court overruled the judgement and changed it to a death sentence.

Singh was scheduled to be hanged on March 24, 1931. However, he was executed 11 hours ahead of schedule- on March 23, 1931, at 7:30 p.m. It was reported that Singh was left to hang for an hour to eliminate the risk of accident or error on the part of the executioner. After the jail authorities removed the body, they broke a hole in the rear of the jail and cremated it. The ashes were then dispersed into the Sutlej river.

Bhagat Singh Legacy

Executed at the age of 23, Bhagat Singh was made a national hero in India. His actions and efforts to gain freedom inspired many to follow in his footsteps. Today, he is immortalized in many statues and portraits in important Indian establishments such as the Parliament of India. He is even adorned in many films and serials. The most recent was Rang De Basanti, which was released in 2006.

FAQ’s on Bhagat Singh

Question 1.
Who was Bhagat Singh?

Answer:
Bhagat Singh was a young Indian Freedom Fighter who significantly contributed to India’s Independence movement.

Question 2.
Was Bhagat Singh married?

Answer:
Bhagat Singh was not married. He ran away to Kanpur to avoid an arranged marriage.

Question 3.
Which name was Bhagat Singh often referred to?

Answer:
He was often referred as Saheed Bhagat Singh

Question 4.
Where was Bhagat Singh born?

Answer:
Singh was born in Lyallpur district, Punjab, present-day Pakistan

Question 5.
What is the name of Bhagat Singh’s mother?

Answer:
Bhagat Singh’s mother’s name is Vidyavati.

Make in India Essay | Essay on Make in India for Students in English

Make in India Essay

Make in India Essay: Make in India Essay aims to educate students about the Indian Government’s program to encourage companies to manufacture products in India. The basic idea behind this programme is to produce commodities or services that can be consumed or used as a commodity in India. This initiative provides many benefits such as a business-friendly environment and an investor-friendly ecosystem. Moreover, countless jobs will be created as a result, reducing unemployment numbers.

You can also find more Essay Writing articles on events, persons, sports, technology and many more

This plan is not new and has already been implemented in other countries such as the United States under the name “Buy American” (under Obama’s administration). From an academic perspective, students must thoroughly understand the concept before elaborating it in their essay. Moreover, it would be very beneficial if the student practices the essay before their exams as it helps to recall information with ease. The samples we have provided aim to make the student understand the concept with ease. Read on to find know more about how to make India great essay.

Make in India Essay 500+ Words Essay

What is Make in India?

The Make in India initiative was launched on September 25, 2014, by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.  The idea behind the initiative is to produce services or commodities of demand within the country. This initiative opens up a whole new landscape for investors and businesses alike. Moreover, it creates countless job opportunities in the country.

One of the primary focuses of this initiative is to provide the required infrastructure to set up businesses. Furthermore, India gave investment commitments of nearly INR 16 lakh crores between 2014 to 2016. As a result, India emerged as one of the top destinations for foreign direct investments, surpassing China and the United States. The policy allows for 100% FDI in all the 100 sectors except the defence and space industry. This opened up many new horizons for foreigndirect investors and businesses.

To sum up, Make in India initiative focuses on these three criteria:

  • Foreign Direct Investments
  • Ease of doing business/ Zero hindrance
  • Sector-specific growth

Make in India – Sectors Covered

Make in India initiative focuses on 25 core sectors:

Major Sectors Covered Under Make in India
Leather Media and entertainment
Automobiles Mining
Automobile components Oil and gas
Aviation Pharmaceuticals
Biotechnology Ports & shipping
Chemicals Construction
Defence manufacturing Renewable Energy
Defence exports Roads & Highways
Electronic systems Space & Astronomy
Food processing Textiles & Garments
Electrical machinery Thermal Power
Exports Tourism
Information technology & business process management Wellness & Healthcare

Implications of Make in India Essay

Most of these have provided fruitful results. For instance, Kia Motors Corporation, an automobile manufacturer from South Korea invested nearly USD 1.1 billion in 2017 and built the company’s first manufacturing plant in Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh. This resulted in the company hiring 3,000 employees, and pushing out over 3 lakh cars. The CEO of Kia also plans to create 10,000 more jobs by 2021, thereby providing a livelihood for many. In 2019, Elon Musk, the CEO of Tesla Motors expressed his interest to join Make in India by commencing operation 2019-20.

The Make in India initiative also led to Aramco, one of Saudi Arabia’s largest oil companies, to sign a deal with a consortium of Indian oil companies to build a refinery and petrochemical project worth USD 44 billion on the west coast of India. This deal has the potential to provide job opportunities for many. Similarly, there are many such foreign direct investors who are ready to invest in India and transform the nation for the better.

Advantages of Make in India Essay

Make in India initiative has many advantages. These advantages are as follows:

  • Generation of employment opportunities
  • Expand GDP in India
  • Removal of existing roadblocks to businesses and retention of Indian investors
  • Development of towns and villages (Setting up an industry in the vicinity of a town or a village leads to the development of surrounding infrastructure
  • Access to cutting edge technology/ processes
  • A large influx of capital

Disadvantages of Make in India Essay

In theory, this initiative is almost perfect in its goal to improve the Indian economy. However, there are some disadvantages that need to be discussed:

  • The agriculture industry will be neglected
  • Natural resources will be depleted
  • Small-scale businesses and entrepreneurs will be affected
  • Loss of arable land
  • Pollution and increased carbon footprint
  • Possibility of spoiling relations with China/ Competition with China

FAQs on Make in India Essay

Question 1.
What is the concept of Make in India?

Answer:
Make in India initiative focuses on these three specific criteria:

  • Foreign Direct Investments
  • Ease of doing business/ Zero hindrance
  • Sector-specific growth

Question 2.
Who launched Make in India?

Answer:
The Make in India initiative was launched on September 25, 2014, by Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

Question 3.
What is the benefit of Make in India?

Answer:
Make in India has the following benefits:

  • Generation of employment opportunities
  • Access to cutting new technology/ processes
  • A large influx of capital
  • Development of towns & villages
  • Expansion of GDP in India

Question 4.
What are the 25 sectors of make in India?

Answer:
Make in India covers the following sectors: leather, media and entertainment, automobiles, mining, automobile components, oil and gas, aviation, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, ports & shipping, chemicals, railways, construction, rapid transit, defence manufacturing, renewable energy, defence exports, roads & highways, electronic systems, space & astronomy, food processing, textiles & garments, electrical machinery, thermal power, exports, tourism, information technology & business process management, wellness & healthcare.

ICSE Merchant of Venice Questions and Answers

ICSE Merchant of Venice Questions and Answers PDF

Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers

ICSE Merchant of Venice Questions and Answers PDF

1. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow :

Morocco :
Mislike me not for my complexion,
The shadowed livery of the burnished sun,
To whom I am a neighbour and near bred.
Bring me the fairest creature northward born,
Where Phoebus’ fire scarce thaws the icicles,
And let us make incision for your love
To prove whose blood is reddest, his or mine.
I tell thee, lady, this aspect of mine
Hath feared the valiant. By my love
I swear The best-regarded virgins of our clime
Have loved it too. I would not change this hue
Except to steal your thoughts, my gentle queen.

Portia :
In terms of choice I am not solely led
By nice direction of a maiden’s eyes.
Besides, the lottery of my destiny
Bars me the right of voluntary choosing. [Act-II Sc. I] [ICSE 2018]

(i) Where is this scene set? Account for Morocco’s presence in this place.
Answer: This scene is set in one of the rooms in Portia’s house. The Prince of Morocco has come to Belmont to try his luck at the lottery of caskets which Portia’s father had devised.

(ii) What can you assess of Morocco’s appearance and character based on the given extract?
Answer: Morocco is dark complexioned, fierce- looking youngman. He is proud of his dark skin. He adds that his dark complexion has frightened many brave warriors and the best regarded virgins of his country also like him for his dark skin.

(iii) Mention any three actions that Morocco says he would be happy to perform in order to win Portia.
Answer: Morocco would be happy to perform these three things to win Portia :
• he would outstare the sternest eyes that look,
• he would pluck the young suckling from the she-bear,
• he would mock the lion when he roars for prey.

(iv) What does Morocco have to swear before he makes his ‘hazard’?
Answer: Morocco would have to swear that if he chooses wrong he would never speak to any lady afterwards by way of marriage.

(v) Portia speaks of ‘the lottery of my destiny’. What exactly is she referring to? What in your opinion are Portia’s feelings regarding this matter ?
Answer: Portia is actually referring to the lottery of caskets. According to the will of her late father, she would have to marry that man who chooses the right casket. That is why she calls the lottery of caskets the lottery of her destiny. I feel that Portia is a very sincere and faithful girl. She has a great regard for her father. In no case would she go against the wishes of her father.

2. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow :

Shylock
Shall I not receive my principal ?
Portia :
Thou shall have nothing but the forfeiture,
To be taken at thy peril, Jew. [Act IV Sc. I ICSE 2018]

(i) Explain what Portia means by the above words.
Answer: Earlier in the scene Portia had requested Shylock to be merciful, but Shylock had refused to do so. Portia has now turned the tables on Shylock. She has asked him to take a pound of flesh but he must not shed even a drop of blood. This is not possible. So Shylock wants to have his principal amount i.e., three thousand ducats. But Portia angrily says that he will have only the forfeiture of his bond.

(ii) How does Shylock respond to her words ?
Answer: Shylock angrily says that if they are not going to return him even the principal amount, then devil may take him. In other words, the amount may go to hell, he will not stay there any more.

(iii) What more does Portia tell Shylock about the laws of Venice as applicable to an ‘alien’ (foreigner) ?
Answer: Portia tells Shylock that according to the laws of Venice, if an alien (foreigner) plots against the life of any citizen of Venice directly or indirectly then that citizen will be entitled to seize one half of the alien’s property. The other half will go into the private treasury of the state.

(iv) What does Antonio propose to do with his share of Shylock’s goods ?
Answer: Antonio proposes to invest in business his share of Shylock’s goods and he wants to give it to Lorenzo and Jessica after the death of Shylock.

(v) What role does Portia play in this scene ? What does this reveal of her character ?
Answer: Portia plays a very significant role in this scene. As a doctor of law, she turns the tables on Shylock and saves Antonio from the clutches of the cruel Jew.

3. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:

Antonio :
But little: I am arm’d and well prepared.
Give me your hand, Bassanio: fare you well!
Grieve not that I am fallen to this for you;
For herein Fortune shows herself more kind
Than is her custom: it is still her use
To let the wretched man outlive his wealth,
To view with hollow eye and wrinkled brow
An age of poverty; from which lingering penance
Of such misery doth she cut me off. [Act IV Sc I ICSE 2018]

(i) Where is this scene set? To whom are these words addressed? To what question does Antonio respond with the words, ‘But little:’ ?
Answer: This scene is set in a court of justice in Venice. These words are addressed to Portia. Portia has said, “You, merchant, have you any thing to say ?” Antonio says, “But little.”

(ii) What does Antonio mean when he says, “Grieve not that I have fallen to this for you”?
Answer: Antonia means to say that Bassanio should not feel sad after his death. He should not blame himself thinking that it was due to him that Antonio signed the fatal bond and fell a victim to the treachery of Shylock.

(iii) What does Antonio instruct Bassanio to do immediately after speaking these lines ?
Answer: After speaking these lines Antonio instructs Bassanio to convey his compliments to his honourable wife. He should also tell his wife the manner in which Antonio met his end. Above all, Bassanio should tell his wife how much he (Antonio) loved him (Bassanio).

(iv) What is Bassanio’s response to this speech ?
Answer: In response to this speech Bassanio tells Antonio that he is now a married man. He loves his wife very much. But at this moment his life, his wife and all the world are not of greater value to him than Antonio’s life. He would lose them all to save Antonio’s life.

(v) On what note does Antonio conclude his speech? What does this reveal of Antonio’s attitude to life and death?
Answer: Antonio concludes his speech telling Bassanio that he is making this sacrifice for him but he does not repent it. He adds that if the Jew cuts deep enough he will die, but he will be contented to think that he has paid Bassanio’s debt.

4. Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow :

Portia :
As from her lord, her governor, her king.
Myself and what is mine to you and yours
Is now converted : but now I was the lord
Of this fair mansion, master of my servants,
Queen O’er myself; and even now, but now,
This house, these servants, and this same myself,
Are yours, my lord : [ICSE 2016]

(i) Where are Portia and Bassanio ? What has just taken place which makes Portia to speak these words ? What was the inscription given in the lead casket ?
Answer: Portia and Bassanio are in a room in Portia’s house. Bassanio has just chosen the lead casket which contained Portia’s portrait. Portia is overjoyed at this.
The lead casket had this inscription on it: “Who chooseth me must give and hazard all he hath.”

(ii) What does Bassanio say in praise of Portia’s portrait ?
Answer: Looking at the portrait of Portia, Bassanio says that some semi-divine artist has made this portrait. It is so lifelike. The eyes seem to move and the lips seem to part to say something. It is really excellent.

(iii) What news saddens Bassanio on this happy occasion ? What does Portia ask him to do ?
Answer: On this happy occasion, Bassanio receives from Salerio Antonio’s letter. This letter informs him that Antonio’s ships have met with a disaster. His creditors have become .cruel as his means have fallen low. Antonio’s bond to Shylock has been forfeited.
When Portia learns about Antonio’s plight, she asks Bassanio to expedite all his business immediately and go to Venice to help Antonio.

(iv) Who is Balthazar ? What was the work assigned to him by Portia ?
Answer: Balthazar is the trusted servant of Portia. She asks him to go to Padua immediately and deliver a letter to her cousin Dr. Bellario. Moreover, whatever papers or garments he might give to him, he must bring them to her at a very fast speed.

(v) Where does Portia really plan to go ? What similarity do we find between Portia and Antonio ? What does this scene reveal about the character of Portia ? Give a reason to justify your answer.
Answer: Portia plans to appear in the court disguised as a representative of Dr. Bellario.
Both Portia and Antonio are very sincere. Both of them love Bassanio and are ready to do anything for him. This scence reveals Portia’s essential wisdom. As soon as she sends Bassanio, she decides to send Balthazar to Dr. Bellario to seek legal opinion and help from him in the case of Antonio.

5. Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow :

But mercy is above this sceptred sway;
It is enthroned in the hearts of kings,
It is an attribute to God himself;
And earthly power doth then show likest God’s
When mercy reasons justice. [ICSE 2016]

(i) Name the speaker. Why did the speaker appeal to the Jew for mercy ? Earlier who else in the play appealed for mercy ? Answer: The speaker is Portia dressed as a doctor of laws. The speaker appealed to the Jew for mercy to diminish the force of his demand for strict justice. She added that if he still insisted on his demand of a pound of flesh, the strict court of Venice would have to pronounce a judgement against Antonio.
Earlier the Duke himself had appealed to Shylock to show mercy.

(ii) What are the three qualities of mercy which the speaker has stated just before the extract ?
Answer: The speaker has stated that mercy is shown by human beings as naturally and spontaneously as the gentle drops of rain fall from the sky above down to the ground below. Secondly, mercy is the most powerful feeling in those who have the highest authority. It suits a king more than his crown. Mercy is greater than the worldly authority which is symbolized by the sceptre which he holds. Thirdly, mercy is the essential quality of God who is the supreme power of the universe. Earthly power acquires a divine quality when a man softens the rigours of the demands of justice by showing mercy.

(iii) Give the meaning of ‘But mercy is above this sceptred sway’. How does Shylock turn down Portia’s plea for mercy ? What does he insist on ?
Answer: The line “But mercy is above this sceptred sway” means that the king’s sceptre is the emblem of his worldly power. It is the symbol of fear which kingship inspires in others. But mercy is higher and greater than the worldly authority which is symbolized by rod. Shylock turns down Portia’s plea for mercy asking her to let him face the consequences of his actions. He takes full responsibility for his act. He persists in his demand. He asks Portia to enforce the law and let him have the penalty specified in the bond which Antonio has forfeited.

(iv) What is Bassanio ready to do for Antonio in the court ? Why is Bassanio snubbed . immediately by the disguised Portia ?
Answer: Bassanio is ready to pay twice the borrowed money. If that is not sufficient, he is ready to pay ten times that amount. If even this is not enough, he is ready to forfeit his hands and his heart.
Bassanio asks Portia (disguised as doctor of laws) to bend the law once and use the authority of the court to do what is morally right to save the life of Antonio. But Portia, snubs him saying that there is no power that can change the established law of Venice.

(v) Mention two prominent character traits of Shylock as highlighted through the scene from which the extract has been taken. Substantiate your answer with examples from the text.
Answer: The trial scene shows that Shylock is a revengeful and bloodthirsty man. He turns down the apeals of the Duke and Portia for mercy and insists on having a pound of flesh. He is offered ten times the amount of the borrowed money but he refuses it. He wants only revenge. Secondly, the scene shows that Shylock is firm in his resolve. He bluntly tells Portia that there is no power in the tongue of man to alter his . resolve to take a pound of flesh. He says, “My deeds upon my head.” Thus he . invokes the law to let him have the penalty as mentioned in the bond.

6. Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow :

Portia : …. But this reasoning is not in the fashion to choose me a husband. O me, the word “choose” ! I may neither choose whom I would, nor refuse whom I dislike; so is the will of a living daughter curbed by the will of a dead father. Is it not hard, Nerissa, that I cannot choose one, nor refuse none ? [ICSE 2015]

(i) What test had Portia’s father devised for her suitors ? What oath did the suitors have to take before making their choice ? Answer: Portia’s father had devised a lottery of three caskets in one of which was the portrait of Portia. Only that suitor who loved her truly would choose the right casket . The suitors had to take an oath of secrecy and of celibacy in case they failed in the right choice.

(ii) Who is Nerissa ? What does she say to cheer up Portia ?
Answer: Nerissa is Portia’s companion. She cheers up Portia by saying that she should not worry as her father must have got right inspiration at the time of his death, and that the casket lottery designed by him would prove to be a sound one.

(iii) Why does Portia disapprove of the County Palatine ? Whom would she rather marry ?
Answer: Portia disapproves the County Palatine because he does nothing but frown, just as if to say, “I care little whether you want me or not.” He hears good stories without a smile. Portia says that she should rather marry a skeleton with a bone in his mouth.

(iv) How, according to Portia, can the Duke of Saxony’s nephew be made to choose the wrong casket ? What do these suitors ultimately decide ? Why ?
Answer: The Duke of Saxony’s nephew is a big drunkard. So in order to induce him to choose the wrong casket, Portia asks Nerissa to place a large glass of wine. He will choose that casket even if the devil be in the casket. So long as the temptation of wine is there, he will choose it. These suitors ultimately decide to leave without trying their luck with the lottery because they do not want to take any risk as they are not true lovers.

(v) Whom does Portia ultimately marry ? Who were the two other suitors who took the test ? Why, in your opinion, is the person whom she marries worthy of her ?
Answer: Portia marries young Bassanio ultimately. The other two suitors who took the test were the Prince of Morocco and the Prince of Arragon. Bassanio, a brave and generous fellow, was really worthy of Portia because he knew what love demanded. He was the one who could make the greatest sacrifice at the altar of love. True love knows to give but does not demand.

7. Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow :
Duke :
What, is Antonio here ?
Antonio :
Ready, so please your grace.
Duke :
I am sorry for thee : thou art come to answer
A stony adversary, an inhuman wretch
Uncapable of pity, void and empty
From any dram of mercy [ICSE 2015]

(i) What are the terms of the bond that Antonio has signed ?
Answer: The terms of the bond that Antonio has signed are very harsh, according to which Shylock will be entitled to have a pound of flesh from any part of Antonio’s body if the latter fails to return the sum of three thousand ducats borrowed by Antonio.

(ii) Why does the Duke call Shylock ‘inhuman’ ? What does the Duke expect Shylock to do ?
Answer: The Duke calls Shylock ‘inhuman’ because he (Shylock) has a heart of stone, an inhuman wretch who does not know what pity is, quite lacking in the slighest quality of mercy. The Duke expects Shylock to be merciful, and not vindictive.

(iii) What reason does Shylock give for choosing rotten flesh over money ? What are the things hated by some people ?
Answer: Shylock prefers to have a quantity of dead flesh rather than three thousand ducats. For this he gives no other reason than his whim. People like or hate things out of their personal inclinations. There are certain men who have an aversion to a gaping pig, , there are others who fly into a rage at the sight of a cat. Still there are others who fail to keep their balance on hearing the sound of a bagpipe.

(iv) State three examples Antonio gives to illustrate Shylock’s stubborn attitude.
Answer: Antonio tells Bassanio that it is useless to ask Shylock to be merciful. He argues that as it is useless to ask the tide not to rise so high, similarly it is futile to ask Shylock to soften his stand. One might as well ask the wolf why he made the mother sheep mourn for the lamb he devoured. One might as well forbid the pine trees on the mountains to wave their high tops and to make a noise when disturbed by the winds of heaven.

(v) How is Shylock’s property distributed at the end by Antonio ?
Do you think Shylock deserves the punishment given to him ?
Give a reason to justify your answer.
Answer: Though the Duke orders half of Shylock’s property to go to Antonio while the other half will go to the state treasury, Antonio remarks that he does not want to claim half of Shylock’s property. He adds that he would like it to be given to Jessica and Lorenzo after Shylock’s death. I think Shylock has been harshly treated. He seems to have been more sinned against than sinning. The Christian charity should have been shown to him also.

Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers Act 4 Scene 1

Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers Act 4 Scene 1

Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers Act 4 Scene 1 Questions and Answers, Passage Based Questions.

Merchant of Venice Act 4 Scene 1 Workbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
‘If you deny it, let the danger light
Upon your charter and your city’s freedom!’ (Lines: 38-39)
What does Shylock remind the Duke ? What does he want ?
Answer:
Shylock reminds the Duke that he cannot go against the law in defending a Christian because he is legally right. He wants him to help him in getting the penalty stated in his bond.

Question 2.
‘Do all men kill the things they do not love?’ (Line: 64)
Who is being addressed by Bassanio ? How is he answered ?
Answer:
Bassanio is addressing Shylock in the Trial Scene. When he asks Shylock if all men kill or destroy the objects of their hatred, Shylock asks him to tell who would not like the end of a thing he hates.

Question 3.
‘Let them be free! Marry them to your heirs !
Why sweat they under burthens ?’ (Lines : 92-93)
In which circumstances does Shylock utter these words ? What advice does he give to the Duke and other Christians ?
Answer:
Shylock utters these words when the Duke asks him to show mercy to Antonio. In response, he asks the Duke and other Christians to free their slaves, treat them better and allow them to marry their relatives.

Question 4.
‘Not on thy sole, but on thy soul, harsh ‘ Jew’ , (Line : 120)
On what occasion is this line spoken ? What is its significance ?
Answer:
This line is spoken by Gratiano in a bitter mood on seeing Shylock sharpening his knife on the sole of his shoe. It reveals that Christians feel that Shylock has no human soul in denying mercy to a fellow Christian, and that he is as stone-hearted as the devil himself.

Question 5.
‘The quality of mercy is not strained’. (Line : 181)
How does Portia explain to Shylock the necessity of showing mercy ?
Answer:
Portia tells Shylock that as we expect God to be merciful to us, it is necessary for us to be merciful to our fellow human beings. If we cannot be merciful, how can we expect God to forgive our sins and be merciful ?

Question 6.
‘Tarry a little, there is something else,
This bond doth give thee here no jot of blood’. (Lines : 301-302)
What makes Portia stop Shylock ? How does she turn the tables on the Jew ?
Answer:
Shylock’s advancing towards Antonio with his knife makes Portia stop him from doing the evil deed. She asks him to cut the flesh without shedding blood, as his bond does not allow him even a single drop of blood, which is impossible. This is how she turns the tables on the Jew.

Question 7.
‘A halter gratis, nothing else, for God’s sake!’ (Line : 375)
Who speaks this line, and when ? What does this reveal about the speaker’s mood ?
Answer:
This line is spoken by Gratiano when Portia asks Antonio what mercy he can show to the defeated Jew. Gratiano, in a sarcastic mood, says that he can supply him a rope free of cost to hang himself.

Question 8.
What upsets Gratiano on seeing Shylock sharpeing his knife ? How does he react ?
Answer:
Gratiano on seeing Shylock sharpening his knife is greatly upset as it indicates that Antonio’s life is really in danger. He feels that Shylock is as cruel as an executioner, and remarks that he tends to believe in Pythagorian doctine of transmigration of souls. According to him, the soul of wolf has entered Shylock’s body.

Question 9.
What makes Shylock reject all appeals of mercy ? What does it show ?
Answer:
Shylock turns down the Duke’s appeal to be merciful to Antonio. Then he ignores Bassanio’s offer of ten times the money he has lent. He rejects Portia’s appeal for mercy. It is so because he is adamant in seeking revenge on Antonio for all the injustice done to him and his race. It shows how one can be blind in revenge.

Question 10.
Portia becomes as adamant and heartless as Shylock in the trial scene. How ?
Answer:
Portia shows no mercy to Shylock. She puts his life at the mercy of the Duke and declares that half of his property will be awarded to the victim (Antonio). Thus, she stoops to the level of Shylock. She should have let Shylock go with or without his principal amount he gave to Antonio.

Question 11.
‘This ring, good sir, it is a trifle,
I will not shame myself to give you this’. (Lines : 426-427)
When does Bassanio utter these lines ? Why is he reluctant to part with his ring ?
Answer:
Bassanio utters these lines when Portia (in male disguise) insists on having only his wedding ring as a reward. He is reluctant to give the ring as he has promised to Portia never to part with the ring in his lifetime.

Merchant of Venice Act 2 Scene 1 Workbook Questions and Answers

PASSAGE 1.
Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow :

Shylock :
What judgment shall I dread, doing no wrong ?
You have among you many a purchased slave,
Which, like your asses and your dogs and mules,
You use in abject and in slavish parts,
Because you bought them : shall I say to you,
Let them be free, marry them to your heirs ?
Why sweat they under burthens ? let their beds
Be made as soft as yours and let their palates
Be season’d with such viands ? You will answer
“The slaves are ours :” so do I answer you :
The pound of flesh, which I demand of him,
Is dearly bought; ’tis mine and I will have it.

(i) What reason has Shylock given for insisting on the pound of flesh ?
Answer: Shylock says that there is no particular reason of his preference for Antonio’s flesh over three thousand ducats. As each of us has some aversion to one thing or the other, he has a definite loathing of Antonio and he wants to go on with his unprofitable suit against him.

(ii) What offer of Bassanio is turned down by Shylock ?
Answer: Bassanio offers six thousand ducats, twice the amount Antonio owes to him. Shylock turns it down instantly.

(iii) How does the Duke respond to Shylock’s insistence on the bond ?
Answer: The Duke says that each one of us asks for God’s mercy for the wrongs we do. He tells Shylock that if he shows no mercy himself he shall have no hope of receiving God’s mercy.

(iv) What is Shylock’s response to the Duke’s appeal for mercy ?
Answer: Shylock says that since he has done no wrong, no sentence can be passed on him. So he does not need God’s mercy.

(v) What argument does Shylock advance for his insisting on his pound of flesh ?
Answer: Shylock says that Christians have many slaves, and asks the Duke if they would treat them well, give them freedom and marry them to their children. He himself says that they could not do so since they have bought them. Similarly he has bought the pound of flesh from Antonio dearly and he would have it.

PASSAGE 2.
Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow :

Shylock :
Some men there are love not a gaping pig;
Some, that are mad if they behold a cat;
And others, when the bagpipe sings i’ the nose,
Cannot contain their urine: for affection,
Mistress of passion, sways it to the mood
Of what it likes or loathes. Now, for your answer:’
As there is no firm reason to be render’d,
Why he cannot abide a gaping pig;
Why he, a harmless necessary cat;
Why he, a woollen bagpipe; but of force
Must yield to such inevitable shame
As to offend, himself being offended;
So can I give no reason, nor I will not,
More than a lodged hate and a certain loathing
I bear Antonio, that I follow thus
A losing suit against him. Are you answer’d?

(i) Who is Shylock addressing to ? What is he being asked ?
Answer: Shylock is addressing the Duke in the Trial Scene. He is asked to be lenient, moderate his demands and show mercy to Antonio.

(ii) How does he explain the case ? Is he being logical ?
Answer: He explains his allergy to Antonio by saying that each one of us is allergic to one thing or the other. The aversion to a thing or person cannot be explained. In explaining his hatred of Antonio Shylock is not logical.

(iii) ‘A losing suit against him’. Explain.
Answer: Shylock means to say that he is pursuing this case against Antonio in this manner, even though it entails a heavy loss of money. He is doing so only because of his deep-rooted antipathy to Antonio.

(iv) How does Bassanio react to Shylock’s utterance later in the scene ?
Answer: Bassanio reacts angrily and asks him whether all men kill the thing they do not like.

(v) What impression do you form of Shylock from what he says ?
Answer: It becomes clear from the way Shylock speaks that he is a hard-hearted and determined enemy. He has become blind in the pursuit of revenge, though circumstances have made him what he is.

PASSAGE 3.
Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow :

Shylock :
When it is paid according to the tenor,
It doth appear you are a worthy judge;
You know the law, your exposition
Hath been most sound; I charge you by law,
Whereof you are a well-desevring pillar,
Proceed to judgement: by my soul, I swear
There is no power in the tongue of man
To alter me : I stay here on my bond.

(i) On what occasion does Shylock speak these lines ? What does ‘it’ in the first line stand for ?
Answer: When Portia asks Shylock to take thrice the amount that he had loaned to Antonio and let her tear the bond, Shylock speaks these words. The word ‘it’ stands for the bond.

(ii) What had Portia just said that Shylock called her ‘a worthy judge’ ?
Answer: Portia had said that the bond was forfeited and lawfully Shylock could claim a pound of flesh to be cut off by him, nearest Antonio’s heart.

(iii) Shylock Says :
“There is no power in the tongue of man To alter me”.
What light does this throw on the character of Shylock ?
Answer: This line throws ample light on the character of Shylock. It tells us that he is obstinate, revengeful and of a firm determination. Once he resolves to do something, he cannot be persuaded to change his decision.

(iv) How does Portia turn the tables against Shylock ?
Answer: Finding Shylock extremely obstinate Portia asks him to take a pound of flesh according to the bond. But, if in cutting the flesh, he sheds even one drop of blood, his lands and goods would be confiscated by the state. Thus Shylock is defeated by his own weapon.

(v) Was Shylock happy with the judgement ? Do you think he is ‘more sinned against than sinning’ ?
Answer: Shylock was not happy with the judgement. Yes, I think Shylock is more sinned against than sinning. Shylock does conspire against the life of his arch enemy Antonio, but the way the tables are turned against him, makes us sympathise with him. One half of his property goes to Antonio and the other half goes to the treasury of Venice This is too much for him. .

PASSAGE 4.
Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow :

Bassanio :
Good cheer, Antonio! What, man, courage yet!
The Jew shall have my flesh, blood, bones and all,
Ere thou shalt lose for me one drop of blood.
Antonio :
I am a tainted wether of the flock,
Meetest for death: the weakest kind of fruit
Drops earliest to the ground; and so let me
You cannot better be employ’d, Bassanio,
Than to live still and write mine epitaph.

(i) Where are the speakers ? Why does Bassanio ask Antonio to be cheerful ? What do his words reveal about him ?
Answer: The speakers are in the court. Bassanio, seeing Antonio depressed and defeated, asks him to be courageous and cheerful. His words reveal his positive outlook in life. He seems to believe that one should fight to the last.

(ii) “I am a tainted wether of the flock.” Explain.
Answer: Antonio compares himself to a diseased sheep of the flock which must be killed to spare other sheep. These words reveal his defeatist attitude. He seems to have given up even before the fight has begun.

(iii) What does Antonio want Bassanio to do after his death ?
Answer: Antonio wants Bassanio to write a suitable epitaph for his tomb after his death. He knows that Bassanio who loves him is the best person for the job.

(iv) What impression do you form of Antonio from his words ?
Answer: Antonio is a pessimist. He has already accepted his defeat. He does not see any ray of hope for him. It is strange that he is so timid while his friends are still hopeful and are fighting for him.

(v) Who enters the court immediately after Antonio’s speech, and why ?
Answer: After Antonio’s brief speech, Nerissa, in male disguise, enters the court. She tells the Duke that she is coming from Doctor Bellario in Padua, and presents him a letter from him.

PASSAGE 5.
Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow :

Portia :
The quality of mercy is not strain’d,
It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven
Upon the place beneath: it is twice blest;
It blesseth him that gives and him that takes:
‘Tis mightiest in the mightiest: it becomes
The throned monarch better than his crown;
His sceptre shows the force of temporal power,
The attribute to awe and majesty,
Wherein doth sit the dread and fear of kings.

(i) On what occasion does Portia utter these words ? What makes her beg for mercy from Shylock ?
Answer: Portia utters these words while defending Antonio in the court. She appeals for mercy in order to persuade Shylock to give up his obdurate stance. She also wants to give him one opportunity.

(ii) ‘It is twice blest’. What does Portia mean to say ?
Answer: Portia says that the quality of mercy is doubly blessed. It blesses both the parties, the giver as well as the recipient. One gets the benefit and the other gets the satisfaction of doing good.

(iii) In what sense is mercy a divine quality ?
Answer: Mercy is a divine quality in the sense that it is manifest in God himself. God shows us mercy when we seek it sincerely. Mercy is far above any other worldly quality.

(iv) How does Shylock turn down Portia’s plea for mercy ? What does he insist on ?
Answer: Shylock turns down Portia’s plea for mercy by saying that he is ready to face the consequences of his action. He insists on the penalty as specified in the bond.

(v) How does he later turn down three times the amount of loan offered by Bassanio ?
Answer: He turns down three times the amount of the loan offered by Bassanio, saying that he has sworn to have only the penalty. He asks Portia if she wants him to be guilty of betraying his pledge.

PASSAGE 6.
Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow :

But mercy is above this sceptred sway;
It is enthroned in the hearts of kings,
It is an attribute to God himself;
And earthly power doth then show likest God’s
When mercy seasons justice.

(i) Name the speaker. Why did the speaker appeal to the Jew for mercy ? Earlier who else in the play appealed for mercy ?
Answer: The speaker is Portia dressed as a doctor of laws. The speaker appealed to the Jew for mercy to diminish the force of his demand for strict justice. She added that if he still insisted on his demand of a pound of flesh, the strict court of Venice would have to pronounce a judgement against Antonio.
Earlier the Duke himself had appealed to Shylock to show mercy.

(ii) What are the three qualities of mercy which the speaker has stated just before the extract ?
Answer: The speaker has stated that mercy is shown by human beings as naturally and spontaneously as the gentle drops of rain fall from the sky above down to the ground below. Secondly, mercy is the most powerful feeling in those who have the highest authority. It suits a king more than his crown. Mercy is greater than the worldly authority which is symbolized by the sceptre which he holds. Thirdly, mercy is the essential quality of God who is the supreme power of the universe. Earthly power acquires a divine quality when a man softens the rigours of the demands of justice by showing mercy.

(iii) Explain Portia’s statement :
‘But mercy is above this sceptred sway’. How does Shylock turn down Portia’s plea for mercy ? What does he insist on ?
Answer: The line “But mercy is above this sceptred sway” means that the king’s sceptre is the emblem of his worldly power. It is the symbol of fear which kingship inspires in others. But mercy is higher and greater than the worldly authority which is symbolized by rod. Shylock turns down Portia’s plea for mercy asking her to let him face the consequences of his actions. He takes full responsibility for his action. He persists in his demand. He asks Portia to enforce the law and let him have the penalty specified in the bond which Antonio has forfeited.

(iv) What is Bassanio ready to do for Antonio in the court ? Why is Bassanio snubbed immediately by the disguised Portia ?
Answer: Bassanio is ready to pay twice the borrowed money. If that is not sufficient, he is ready to pay ten times that amount. If even this is not enough, he is ready to forfeit his hands and his heart.
Bassanio asks Portia (disguised as doctor of laws) to bend the law once and use the authority of the court to do what is morally right, to save the life of Antonio. But Portia snubs him saying that there is no power that can change the established law of Venice.

(v) Mention two prominent character traits of Shylock as highlighted through the scene from which the extract has been taken. Substantiate your answer with examples from the text.
Answer: The trial scene shows that Shylock is a revengeful and bloodthirsty man. He turns down the appeals of the Duke and Portia for mercy and insists on having a pound of flesh. He is offered ten times the amount of the borrowed money but he refuses it. He wants only revenge. Secondly, the scene shows that Shylock is firm in his resolve. He bluntly tells Portia that there is no power in the tongue of man to alter his resolve to take a pound of flesh. He says, “My deeds upon my head”. Thus he invokes the law to let him have the penalty as mentioned in the bond.

PASSAGE 7.
Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow :

Antonio :
Commend me to your honourable wife :
Tell her the process of Antonio’s end;
Say how I loved you, speak me fair in death;
And, when the tale is told, bid her be judge
Whether Bassanio had not once a love.
Repent but you that you shall lose your friend,
And he repents not that he pays your debt;
For if the Jew do cut but deep enough,
I’ll pay it presently with all my heart.
Bassanio :
Antonio, I am married to a wife
Which is as dear to me as life itself;
But life itself, my wife, and all the world,
Are not with me esteem’d above thy life:
I would lose all, ay, sacrifice them all
Here to this devil, to deliver you.

(i) On what occasion does Antonio speak these lines ? What is he prepared for ?
Answer: Antonio speaks these lines after Shylock has rejected the plea for engaging a surgeon to attend to his wounds to prevent his death.

(ii) What is he prepared for ?
Answer: He seems to be prepared for his end.

(iii) What does Antonio want Bassanio to do ? How does he console him ?
Answer: Antonio wants Bassanio to remember him to his wife and tell her how he died as also about their friendship. He consoles him saying that he should not feel guilty that he is dying for his debt.

(iv) What tells you that Bassanio loves Antonio sincerely ?
Answer: Bassanio says that he is prepared to sacrifice everything of his, his life and even his wife, to save him from Shylock’s clutches. It shows his deep love for Antonio.

(v) Why is he snubbed by disguised Portia later in the scene ?
Answer: Portia (in the disguise of a male lawyer) snubs Bassanio that he is ready to sacrifice even his wife. She points out that his wife is not likely to be thankful to him if she were to hear him say this.

PASSAGE 8.
Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow :

Duke :
That thou shalt see the difference of our spirits,
I pardon thee thy life before thou ask it :
For half thy wealth, it is Antonio’s;
The other half comes to the general state,
Which humbleness may dripe unto a fine.
Portia:
Ay, for the state, not for Antonio.
Shylock :
Nay, take my life an all; pardon not that :
You take my house when you do take the prop
That doth sustain my house; you take my life
When you do take the means whereby I live.

(i) How does Portia turn the tables on Shylock ?
Answer: Portia asks Shylock to cut the pound of flesh from Antonio’s chest, but in so doing he should not shed even a single drop of blood, as it is not mentioned in the bond. Shylock is, thus, cornered by Portia.

(ii) What makes Shylock completely helpless ?
Answer: Portia says that according to the law, for plotting against the life of a citizen of Venice, one half of his property will go to Antonio and the other half to the state. Moreover, his own life is at the mercy of the Duke. Portia advises him to kneel to the Duke and ask for mercy.

(iii) What tells you the extreme agonised state of Shylock ?
Answer: Shylock, for whom money is everything, reveals his agony by saying that by taking away his property they are taking away the support that sustains his life.

(iv) Does Shylock accept the conditions imposed on him ? How does he leave the court ?
Answer: Shylock accepts the conditions imposed on him. He leaves the court fully dejected and defeated.

(v) What reward is demanded by Portia from Bassanio, and by Nerissa from Gratiano ? What is their purpose ?
Answer: Portia and Nerissa demand their wedding rings as gifts from Bassanio and Gratiano respectively. Since they are in male disguises, they remain unrecognized. They demand the rings only to create fun later.

PASSAGE 9.
Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow :

Bassanio :
There’s more depends on this than on the value.
The dearest ring in Venice will I give you,
And find it out by proclamation:
Only for this, I pray you, pardon me.
Portia :
I see, sir, you are liberal in offers
You taught me first to beg; and now methinks
You teach me how a beggar should be answer’d.

(i) Where are the speakers ? What offer was made to Portia by Bassanio on winning the case ?
Answer: The speakers, Bassanio and Portia, are in the court room. Bassanio presses Portia to accept something as a token of their regard for her on winning the case.

(ii) What has Portia demanded ? Why is Bassanio reluctant ? What offer does he make ?
Answer: Portia has demanded a ring which she gave to Bassanio. Bassanio is reluctant to give it to her because of his promise not to part with the ring in his lifetime. He offers any other ring, the costliest, in its place.

(iii) Why does Portia refuse the offer ? In which mood is she ?
Answer: Portia refuses the offer saying that she has a strong desire for it. She pretends to be in an angry mood on being denied the ring after the offer of a. gift has been made to her.

(iv) ‘You teach me how a beggar should be answer’d’. Explain.
Answer: Portia pretends to be angry. She says that Bassanio has shown how a beggar should be treated. Bassanio feels himself to be in a tight spot.

(v) Does Bassanio fulfil Portia’s demand ? How ?
Answer: Yes, Bassanio fulfils Portia’s demand by giving her the ring he does not want to part with Antonio makes him give the ring greatly against his will.

Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers Act 5 Scene 1

Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers Act 5 Scene 1

Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers Act 5 Scene 1 Questions and Answers, Passage Based Questions.

Merchant of Venice Act 5 Scene 1 Workbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
‘In such a night
Medea gathered the enchanted herbs’. (Lines : 15-16)
Who speaks these lines ? What do you know of Medea ?
Answer:
These lines are uttered by Jessica. Medea was Jason’s wife who restored his father Aeson to youthful vigour by gathering herbs by moonlight with incantation and by giving their juice to him.

Question 2.
‘In such a night
Did Jessica steal from the wealthy Jew’. (Lines : 15-16)
On what occasion does Lorenzo utter these words ?
Answer:
Lorenzo utters these words when he and Jessica indulge in a game of outwitting each other in telling stories about classical lovers. They are in a romantic mood on a moonlit night.

Question 3.
‘The man that hath no music in himself (Lines : 91-92)
Is fit for treasons, stratagems and spoils’. What does Lorenzo think of the quality and influence of music ?
Answer:
Lorenzo thinks high of music. He believes that the man who has no ear for music and is not moved by it is a man with a black soul. Such a man, according to him, can only plan conspiracies and commit acts of plunder.

Question 4.
‘Nothing is good, I see, without respect : Methinks it sounds much sweeter than by day’. (Lines : 107-108)
What prompts Portia to talk about the general nature of all things including music ? Do you approve of what she says ?
Answer:
The sound of music prompts Portia to talk about the general nature of all things. She is of the opinion that nothing is pleasant or unpleasant, and that we only project our feelings on the things around. Yes, we think she is quite right.

Question 5.
‘You were to blame, —I must be plain with you—
To part so slightly with your wife’s first gift’. (Lines : 178-179)
Who is blamed by Portia, and why ? What is her accusation ? Is she serious ?
Answer:
Bassanio is blamed by Portia for giving his wife’s first gift, a ring, to someone casually. She accuses him of giving her ring to some woman. She is just teasing him.

Question 6.
‘No, by my honour, madam, by my soul, No woman had it, but a civil doctor’. (Lines : 224-225)
What is Bassanio accused of ? What does he say in his defence ?
Answer: Bassanio is accused of giving his ring to some woman. In his defence he says that he has given the ring to the lawyer who came to Venice to defend Antonio.

Question 7.
‘In both my eyes he doubly sees himself :
In each eye one ‘ (Lines : 260-261)
How is Portia teasing Bassanio ? What do you think about her ?
Answer:
When Bassanio says that he finds himself reflected in Portia’s beautiful eyes, Portia finds another point to tease him. She says he finds himself doubly reflected in both her eyes—one image in each. Thus, he swears in the name of double-dealing (deceiving) self. This shows how witty and clever Portia is.

Question 8.
‘By heaven, it is the same I gave the doctor!’ (Line : 274)
What surprises Bassanio ? How does Portia explain the mystery ?
Answer:
The ring which was handed over to Bassanio by Portia surprised him because it was the same ring which he had given to the lawyer. Portia explained how she got the ring as she herself was the lawyer in male dress.

Question 9.
What is the cause of quarrel between Nerissa and Gratiano ? What is amusing about it ?
Answer:
Nerissa finds her ring missing on Gratiano’s finger, so she starts quarelling with Gratiano. She accuses him of giving that ring to some young girl. The whole quarrel is amusing as we know that the ring is already with Nerissa.

Question 10.
What makes Antonio sad ? Who consoles him ?
Answer:
Like Nerissa, Portia accuses her husband of giving her ring to some young woman. Bassanio vehemently denies the charge. The quarrels between Nerissa and Gratiano and between Portia and Bassanio make Antonio feel sad. He accuses himself for all the quarrels. Portia consoles him by asking him not to feel upset, saying that he is very much welcome to her house.

Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers Act 5 Scene 1 Passage Based Questions

PASSAGE 1.
Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow :

Lorenzo :
The moon shines bright: in such a night as this,
When the sweet wind did gently kiss the trees
And they did make no noise, in such a night
Troilus methinks mounted the Troyan walls
And sigh’d his soul toward the Grecian tents,
Where Cressid lay that night.
Jessica :
In such a night
Did Thisbe fearfully o’ertrip the dew
And saw the lion’s shadow ere himself
And ran dismay’d away.

(i) Where are the speakers ? In which mood are they ?
Answer: The speakers, Lorenzo and Jessica, are in a grove before Portia’s house in Belmont. It is a moonlit night, and the two lovers are in a joyful, romantic mood.

(ii) Who was Troilus ? What did he do at a moonlit night ?
Answer: Troilus was the son of Priam, king of Troy. He climbed the walls of the city of Troy on a moonlit night. He expressed his love in loud sighs for his beloved Cressida asleep in the Grecian tents.

(iii) Who was Thisbe ? What happened to her ?
Answer: Thisbe was a girl loved by Pyramus. She came out to meet her lover on a moonlit night. Sighting a lion’s shadow before her she ran away in terror.

(iv) Why are Lorenzo and Jessica referring to old romantic stories ?
Answer: Lorenzo and Jessica are referring to old romantic stories as they are in a romantic mood, and are playing this kind of game to while away the time while waiting for the return of Portia and Bassanio.

(v) Who enters later in the scene ? What news does he bring ?
Answer: Stephano, a messenger, appears later in the scene. He has brought the news that his mistress (Portia) will be back at home before dawn. At present she is visiting chapels and churches, praying for a happy married life.

PASSAGE 2.
Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow :

Lorenzo :
therefore the poet
Did feign that Orpheus drew trees, stones and floods;
Since nought so stockish, hard and full of rage,
But music for the time doth change his nature.
The man that hath no music in himself,
Nor is not moved with concord of sweet sounds,
Is fit for treasons, stratagems and spoils;
The motions of his spirit are dull as night
And his affections dark as Erebus:
Let no such man be trusted. Mark the music.

(i) Who is being addressed to by Lorenzo ? What has prompted him to dwell on the power of music ?
Answer: Jessica is being addressed to by Lorenzo. The sound of music has prompted him to dwell on the power of music. Music, according to him, enchants humans as well as animals.

(ii) What has the speaker told about the effect of music on wild horses ?
Answer: Lorenzo, the speaker, has said that even when the horses were to hear accidently the sound of a trumpet or some other music, they would suddenly stand still. All the wildness would disappear in their eyes.

(iii) Who is the poet referred to here ? What did he imagine ?
Answer: The poet referred to here is Ovid. He imagined that the great musician Orpheus could draw trees, rocks and rivers after him. He could influence them with the power of his music.

(iv) What does the speaker think of a man who has no love for music ?
Answer: According to the speaker, Lorenzo, the person who has no love for music is an abnormal and wicked person. Such a man is fit for only conspiracies and acts of plunder.

(v) Who enter immediately after this speech ? From where have they come ?
Answer: Portia and Nerissa enter immediately after Lorenzo’s speech. They have come from Venice, unknown to everyone related to them, since they “went there in male dress.

PASSAGE 3.
Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow :

Portia :
What ring gave you my lord?
Not that, I hope, which you received of me.
Bassanio :
If I could add a lie unto a fault,
I would deny it; but you see my finger
Hath not the ring upon it; it is gone.

(i) What makes Portia want to know about the ring ?
Answer: Gratiano says that Lord Bassanio gifted his ring to the judge (Portia in disguise) who asked for it. This makes Portia want to know which ring Bassanio has given to the judge.

(ii) Who has taken the ring from Bassanio ? Why does she pretend not to know ?
Answer: Portia, in the guise of a male lawyer, has herself taken the ring from Bassanio, unknown to him. She pretends not to know only because she is in a mood to tease Bassanio just to have some fun.

(iii) What has Bassanio to confess ? How does he feel ?
Answer: Bassanio has to confess that he gave the lawyer the very ring Portia had given to him on the promise that he would never part with that. He feels embarrassed and even guilty.

(iv) What is Bassanio accused of ? How does he try to defend himself later in the scene ?
Answer: Bassanio is accused of being a cuckold. He tries to defend himself by swearing on his soul and on his honour that he did not give the ring to any woman. He gave the ring to the lawyer.

(v) Who settles the dispute ? What surprises Bassanio the most ?
Answer: It is Antonio who settles the dispute by pledging himself upon his soul that her husband will never again break his oath with her. When Portia asks him to give a ring to Bassanio with the promise to keep it in safe custody, Bassanio is greatly surprised to see it. It is the same ring which he had given to the lawyer.

PASSAGE 4.
Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow :

Portia :
How now, Lorenzo l
My clerk hath some gopd comforts too for you.
Nerissa :
Ay, and I’ll give them him without a fee.
There do I give to you and Jessica,
From the rich Jew, a special deed of gift,
After his death, of all he dies possess’d of.
Lorenzo :
Fair ladies, you drop manna in the way
Of starved people.

(i) What good news makes Portia to turn to Lorenzo ? What does her ‘clerk’ have for him ?
Answer: Antonio has got the news that his ships have safely come to harbour. This good news makes Portia turn to Lorenzo. Her ‘clerk’, that is Nerissa, has good news for him.

(ii) What does Nerissa tell Lorenzo and Jessica ?
Answer: Nerissa tells them about the gift deed signed by Shylock, according to which they will inherit all of his property after his death.

(iii) How does Lorenzo react to the news ?
Answer: Lorenzo reacts exultantly to the news. He calls the gift deed as a sort of heavenly food for hungry people. They will not have to worry about their future.

(iv) Where is the conversation going on ? Why does Portia later ask all of them to go inside ?
Answer: The conversation is going on in the grove before Portia’s house. Portia asks all of the people present to go inside. She knows that her listeners are still not satisfied with what she has told them. She promises to answer all their questions and satisfy their curiosity in every way.

(v) What do you think of the ending of the play ?
Answer: Shakespeare has intended to make The Merchant of Venice a comedy. Naturally, the play ends on a happy note for all, except for Shylock. Seen in this context, the last act or scene cannot be called superfluous, as some critics have opined.

Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers Act 3 Scene 5

Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers Act 3 Scene 5

Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers Act 3 Scene 5 Questions and Answers, Passage Based Questions.

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 5 Workbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
What tells you that Jessica is totally devoted to her lover Lorenzo ?
Answer:
Launcelot says that Jessica would be damned for Shylock’s sins. Jessica at once retorts that she will be saved on account of the virtues of Lorenzo and also because she has become a Christian. It shows her devotion to Lorenzo.

Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers Act 3 Scene 5 Passage Based Questions

PASSAGE 1.
Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow :

Lorenzo :
I shall grow jealous of you shortly. Launcelot
Jessica :
Nay, you need not fear us, Lorenzo : Launcelot
and I are out. He tells me flatly, there is no mercy for
me in heaven, because I am a Jew’s daughter and he
says you are no good member of the commonwealth,
for in converting Jews to Christians, you raise the price of pork.

(i) “I shall grow jealous of you shortly”. In which mood is this line spoken ? What does Lorenzo mean ?
Answer: This line is spoken in a light-hearted, humorous manner. Lorenzo means to say that if he finds Launcelot and Jessica, talking intimately in quiet comers he will begin to suspect Launcelot and thus grow jealous of him.

(ii) What does Launcelot tell Jessica ?
Answer: Launcelot tells Jessica that she has no chance of salvation in heaven because she is a Jew’s daughter.

(iii) Why is Lorenzo not a good member of the commonwealth ?
Answer: Lorenzo is not a good member of the commonwealth because by marrying Jessica, who is a Jew, and converting her to Christianity he is contributing to an increase in price of pork.

(iv) What light does this speech throw on the character of Jessica ?
Answer: This speech proves that Jessica is a humorous young girl who can take a joke lightly and enjoy the fun.

(v) Soon after this speech Jessica expresses her opinion about Portia. What does she Say?
Answer: Jessica tells Lorenzo that Portia as a wife is a blessing for Bassanio. Now that Bassanio has won her, he should prove worthy of his excellent wife.

Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers Act 3 Scene 4

Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers Act 3 Scene 4

Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers Act 3 Scene 4 Questions and Answers, Passage Based Questions.

Merchant of Venice Act 3 Scene 4 Workbook Questions and Answers

Question 1.
T never did repent for doing good
Nor shall not now ‘ (Lines : 10-11)
On what occasion does Portia speak these lines ? What has she done ?
Answer:
Portia speaks these lines when Lorenzo praises Portia for sending Bassanio to Antonio’s help. He is surprised that Portia has done such a noble deed without knowing who Antonio is.

Question 2.
‘But come, I’ll tell thee all my whole device
When I am in my coach’ (Lines : 81-82)
What is in Portia’s mind as she leaves her home for Venice ?
Answer:
As she leaves her home for Venice, Portia has in her mind a plan to defend Antonio. She thinks of going to Venice as a lawyer in a male’s dress, along with Nerissa as her male clerk and fight the legal battle against Shylock with the help of her lawyer cousin.

Question 3.
What duty is assigned to Balthasar by Portia ?
Answer:
Portia is in a hury to go to Venice to save Antonio’s life. So she asks Balthasar to run to Padua and deliver a letter to Dr. Bellario. She asks him to bring back what documents and clothes Dr. Bellario would give him.

Merchant of Venice Workbook Answers Act 3 Scene 4 Passage Based Questions

PASSAGE 1
Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow :

I never did repent for doing good,
Nor shall not now; for in companions
That do converse and waste the time together,
Whose souls do bear an equal yoke Of love,
There must be needs a like proportion
Of lineaments, of manners and of spirit;
Which makes me think that this Antonio,
Being the bosom lover of my lord,
Must needs be like my lord. If it be so,
How little is the cost I have bestow’d
In purchasing the semblance of my soul
From out the state of hellish misery !
This comes too near the praising of myself;
Therefore no more of it : hear other things.

(i) Who is being addressed to ? Who are present on the occasion ?
Answer: Lorenzo is being addressed to here by Portia. Nerissa, Lorenzo, Jessica and Balthasar are present on the occasion.

(ii) What has Lorenzo told Portia ?
Answer: Lorenzo has told Portia as to how loving a friend Antonio is of her husband. He is sure that if she knew it she would feel even more proud of what she has done to help Antonio.

(iii) What is Portia’s instant reply ?
Answer: Portia at once says that she has never been sorry for doing good, and shall not do so now.

(iv) What is Portia’s reason in helping Antonio so generously ?
Answer: According to Portia, Antonio being her husband’s dearest friend must be like him. So in that case whatever she does to save him, who is so like her husband, is very slight.

(v) Give two qualities of Portia that this passage reveals.
Answer: This passage reveals clearly Portia’s generous nature and his humility.

PASSAGE 2.
Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow :

Lorenzo :
Madam, with all my heart;
I shall obey you in all fair commands.
Portia :
My people do already know my mind,
And will acknowledge you and Jessica
In place of Lord Bassanio and myself.
And so farewell, till we shall meet again.

(i) Where are the speakers now ? What has Portia asked Lorenzo to do ?
Answer: The speakers are now in a hall in Portia’s house. Portia has asked Lorenzo to look after the house during Bassanio’s absence as they are also going to a convent for prayers.

(ii) Portia is ready to leave her house. What does she tell Lorenzo and Jessica ? Where is she actually going ?
Answer: Portia tells Lorenzo and Jessica that her people (servants) would obey them as their masters in her absence. She is actually going to Venice to defend Antonio as a lawyer in male attire.

(iii) What tells you that Portia is extremely humble ?
Answer: Portia is so humble and considerate that she does not even call her servants as servants. She calls them her ‘people’ out of respect and humility.

(iv) After Jessica and Lorenzo leave, later in the scene, whom does she meet, and for what ?
Answer: After Jessica and Lorenzo have left, she meets Balthazar, one of her servants, whom she asks to go with a letter to her cousin in Padua. She wants the help of her cousin, a civil doctor, in Antonio’s case.

(v) What does she tell Nerissa later ?
Answer: She tells Nerissa later that they are leaving for Venice in male dresses. She will be a lawyer and Nerissa her clerk. She says she will explain to her the whole plan on the way.

PASSAGE 3.
Read the following extract and answer the questions that follow :

Portia :
Like a fine bragging youth, and tell quaint lies,
How honourable ladies sought my love,
Which I denying, they fell sick and died;
I could not do withal; then I’ll repent,
And wish for all that, that I had not killed them;
And twenty of these puny lies I’ll tell,
That men shall swear I have discontinued school
Above a twelve month. I have within my mind
A thousand raw tricks of these bragging Jacks,
Which I will practise.

(i) Who is Portia speaking to ? What is her plan ?
Answer: Portia is speaking to her companion Nerissa. Her plan is to go to Venice in male attire. She will act as a lawyer and Nerissa, her clerk. She hopes to defend and rescue Antonio.

(ii) How does Portia describe her in the role of a young man ?
Answer: Portia says that she will act as a bold .dashing young man. She will speak in a shrill voice and boast of duels and fights as the fashionable young men do. She will also refer to her imaginary love conquests.

(iii) What is Portia’s tone and attitude as she describes the youth of her age ?
Answer: When Portia describes the youth of her age her tone is hilarious and attitude satirical. Her words are a satirical commentary on the hollow youth who waste a lot of their time in idle pursuits.

(iv) What do you learn about Portia from her scheme ?
Answer: From her scheme it becomes clear that Portia is a good planner. She is bold and adventurous. She does not believe in sitting idle at home. She is a doer in the true sense of the term.

(v) Why has Portia not gone to Belmont with Bassanio ?
Answer: Portia has not gone to Belmont with Bassanio. Perhaps she thinks of going to Venice herself later. Or she wants to spring a surprise on Bassanio, which seems to be more plausible.