The Making of the Earth Summary

The Making of the Earth Summary

however these are simply glimpses of the epic tale that awaits you within the most important article. Delve deeper into the tremendous journey of our planet, sponsored by means of insights from famend geologists and clinical experts who have devoted their lives to unraveling the Earth’s history. put together to be captivated by the wonders of our planet’s past and benefit a brand new appreciation for the difficult strategies which have fashioned our world. So, with none further put off, permit’s embark in this enchanting day trip and unencumber the secrets and techniques of The Making of the Earth. Read More Class 10th English Summaries.

The Making of the Earth Summary In English

The Making of the Earth Introduction:

This chapter is an extract from Nehru’s ‘Letters from a Father to His Daughter. He wrote these letters to his daughter in the summer of 1928 when she was at Mussoorie. In this chapter, Nehru defines the solar system to which our earth belongs. He differentiates between a planet and a star. He talks of the breaking away of the earth from the sun and the breaking away of the moon from the earth. He also talks about the gradual cooling of the earth and the moon, and the formation of the great oceans.

Summary of The Making of the Earth

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You know that the earth goes round the sun and the moon goes round the earth. You know also perhaps that there are several other bodies which like the earth go round the sun. All these, including our earth, are called planets of the sun. The moon is called a satellite of the earth because it hangs on to it. The Other planets have also got their satellites.

The sun and the planets with their satellites form a happy family. This is called the solar system. Solar means belonging to the sun, and the sun being the father of all the planets, the whole group is called the Solar System. At night you see thousands of stars in the sky. Only a few of these are the planets and these are really not called stars at all. Can you distinguish between a planet and a star? The planets are really quite tiny, like our earth, compared to the stars but they look bigger in the sky because they are much nearer to us.

Just as the moon, which is in reality quite a baby, looks so big because it is quite near to us. But the real way to distinguish stars from the planets is to see if they twinkle or not. Stars twinkle, planets do not. That is because the planets only shine because they get the light of our sun. It is only the sunshine on the planets or the moon that we see. The real stars are like our sun. They shine of themselves because they are very hot and burning. In reality our sun itself is a star, only it looks bigger as it is nearer and we see it as a great ball of fire.

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So our earth belongs to the family of the sun the solar system. We think the earth is very big and it is big compared to our tiny selves. It takes weeks and months to go from one part of it to another even in a fast train or steamer. But although it seems so big to us it is just like a speck of dust hanging in the air. The sun is millions of miles away and the other stars are even further away.

Astronomers, those people who study the stars, tell us that long, long ago the earth and all the planets were part of the sun. The sun was then as it is now a mass of flaming matter, terribly hot. Somehow little bits of the sun got loose and they shot out into the air. But they could not wholly get rid of their father, the sun.

It was as if a rope was tied to them and they kept whirling round the sun. This strange force, which I have compared to a rope, is something which attracts little things to great. It is the force which makes things fall by their weight. The earth being the biggest thing near us, attracts everything we have.

In this way, our earth also shot out from the sun. It must have been very hot, with terrible hot gases and air all around it, but as it was very much smaller than the sun, it started to cool. The sun also is getting less hot but it will take millions of years to cool down. The earth took much less time to cool. When it was hot, of course, nothing could live on it – no man or animal or plant or tree. Everything would have been burnt up then.

The Making of the Earth Summary Class 10

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Just as a bit of the sun shot out and became the earth, so also a bit of the earth shot out and became the moon. Many people think that moon came out of the great hollow which is now the Pacific Ocean, between America and Japan. So the earth started to cool. It took a long time over it. Gradually the surface of the earth became cooler although the interior remained very hot. Even now if you go down a coal mine it becomes hotter and hotter as you go down. Probably if you could go down deep enough inside the earth you would find it red hot. The moon also started to cool and because it was much smaller than even the earth, it cooled more quickly than the earth. It looks delightfully cool, does it not ? It is called the ‘cold moon’. Perhaps it is full of glaciers and ice fields.

When the earth cooled all the water vapour in the air condensed into water and probably came down as rain. It must have rained a tremendous lot then. All this water filled the great hollows in the earth and so the great oceans and seas were formed.As the earth became cooler and the oceans also became cooler, it became possible for living things to exist on the earth’s surface or in the sea .

If the Well Goes Dry Summary

The Home Coming Summary

The Home Coming Summary

The Home Coming Summary” explores themes of power, desire, and family dynamics. It delves into the complexities of human relationships, revealing the dark and primal aspects of human nature. Read More Class 10th English Summaries.

The Home-Coming Summary

The Home-Coming Introduction:

This is the story of a fourteen-year-old boy, Phatik. He is very mischievous. He is sent to Kolkata with his maternal uncle. But there, he is not treated well by his aunt as well as his cousins. He becomes seriously ill and dies in the end. The underlying idea of this story is that home is a place where we find love – a place that our feet may leave, but not our hearts. Though it rains gold and silver in another place and daggers and spears at home, yet it is better to be at home.

The Home-Coming Summary & Translation in English

(Page 84)

Phatik Chakravarti was the ring – leader amongst the boys of the village. One day a plan for new mischief entered his head. There was a heavy log lying on the mud-flat of the river, waiting to be shaped into a mast for a boat. His plan was that they should all work together to shift the log by main force from its place and roll it away. The owner of the log would be angry and surprised, while they would all enjoy the fun. Everyone supported the proposal, and it was carried unanimously .

But just as the fun was about to begin, Makhan, Phatik’s younger brother, sauntered up without a word and sat down on the log in front of them all. The boys were puzzled for a moment. One of them pushed him rather timidly, and told him to get up; but he remained quite unconcerned. He appeared like a young philosopher meditating on the futility of things. Phatik was furious. “Makhan,” he cried, “if you don’t get up this minute, I’ll thrash6 you !”

Makhan only moved to a more comfortable position. Now, if Phatik was to keep his regal dignity before the public, it was clear that he must carry out his threat. But his courage failed him at the crisis. His fertile brain, however, rapidly seized upon a new maneuver which would discomfit his brother and afford his followers added amusement. He gave the word and command to roll the log and Makhan over together. Makhan heard the order and made it a point of honour to stick on. But like those who attempt earthly fame in other matters, he overlooked the fact that there was peril in it.

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The boys began to heave at the log with all their might calling out, “One, two, three, go !” At the word ‘go’ the log went; and with it went Makhan’s philosophy, glory and all. The other boys shouted themselves hoarse with delight. But Phatik was a little frightened. He knew what was coming. And he was not mistaken, for Makhan rose from Mother Earth blind as Fate and screaming like the Furies. He rushed at Phatik, scratched his face, beat him and kicked him, and then went crying home. The first act of the drama was over.

Phatik wiped his face, and sitting down on the edge of a sunken barge by the river bank, began to nibble at a piece of grass. A boat came up to the landing and a middle-aged man, with grey hair and dark moustache, stepped on to the shore. He saw the boy sitting there doing nothing and asked him where the Chakravartis lived. Phatik went on nibbling the grass and said : ‘Over there’; but it was quite impossible to tell where he pointed. The stranger asked him again. He swung his legs to and from on the side of the barge and said : ‘Go and find out’ and continued to nibble the grass.

But, at the moment, a servant came down from the house and told Phatik that his mother wanted him. Phatik refused to move. But on this occasion the servant was the master. He roughly took Phatik up and carried him, kicking and struggling in impotent rage. When Phatik entered the house, his mother saw him and called out angrily : ‘So you have been hitting Makhan again ?’

Phatik answered indignantly : ‘No, I haven’t ! Who told you that I had ?’
His mother shouted : ‘Don’t tell lies ! You have.’ Phatik said sullenly ‘I tell you, I haven’t. You ask Makhan !‘ But Makhan thought it best to stick to his previous statement. He said : ‘Yes, mother, Phatik did hit me.’

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Phatik’s patience was already exhausted. He could not bear this injustice. He rushed at Makhan and rained on him a shower of blows : ‘Take that,’ he cried, ‘and that, and that, for telling lies.’

His mother took Makhan’s side in a moment and pulled Phatik away, returning his blows with equal vigour. When Phatik pushed her aside , she shouted out: ‘What! You little villain ! Would you hit your own mother ?’

It was just at this critical moment that the grey-haired stranger arrived. He asked what had occurred. Phatik looked sheepish and ashamed. But when his mother stepped back and looked at the stranger, her anger was changed to surprise, for she recognized her brother and cried : ‘Why, Dada ! Where have you come from ?’ As she said these words, she bowed to the ground and touched his feet.

Her brother Bishamber had gone away soon after she had married, and had started business in Mumbai. She herself had lost her husband while he was there. Bishamber had now come back to Kolkata, and had at once made enquiries concerning his sister. As soon as he found out where she was, he had hastened to see her.

The next few days were full of rejoicing. The brother asked how the two boys were being brought up. He was told by his sister that Phatik was a perpetual nuisance. He was lazy, disobedient and wild. But Makhan was as good as gold, as quiet as a lamb, and very fond of reading. Bishamber kindly offered to take Phatik off his sister’s hands and educate him with his own children in Kolkata. The widowed mother readily agreed. When his uncle asked Phatik if he would like to go to Kolkata with him, his joy knew no bounds, and he said : ‘Oh, yes, uncle !’ in a way that made it quite clear that he meant it.

It was an immense relief to the mother to get rid of Phatik. She had a prejudice against the boy, and no love was lost between the two brothers. She was in daily fear that he would some day either drown Makhan in the river, or break his head in a fight, or urge him on into some danger. At the same time she was a little distressed to see Phatik’s extreme eagerness to leave his home.

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Phatik, as soon as all was settled, kept asking his uncle every minute when they were to start. He was on pins all day long with excitement and lay awake most of the night. He bequeathed to Makhan, in perpetuity, his fishing-rod, his big kite, and his marbles. Indeed at this time of departure, his generosity towards Makhan was unbounded. When they reached Kolkata, Phatik met his aunt for the first time. She was by no means pleased with this unnecessary addition to her family. She found her own three boys quite enough to manage without taking anyone else. And to bring a village lad of fourteen into their midst was terribly upsetting1. Bishamber should really have thought twice before committing such an indiscretion.

In this world there is no worse nuisance than a boy at the age of fourteen. He is neither ornamental nor useful. It is impossible to shower affection on him as on a smaller ,boy; and he is always getting in the way. If he talks with a childish lisp he is called a baby, and if in a grown-up way he is called impertinent. In fact, “talk of any kind from him is resented. Then he is at the unattractive, growing age. He grows out of his clothes with indecent haste his face grows suddenly angular and unsightly.

It is easy to excuse the shortcomings of early childhood, but it is hard to tolerate even unavoidable lapses in a boy of fourteen. He becomes painfully self-conscious, and when he talks with elderly people he is either unduly forward, or else so unduly shy that he appears ashamed of his own existence. Yet, it is at this age that in his heart of hearts, a young lad most craves recognition and love; and he becomes the devoted slave of any one who shows him consideration. But none dare openly love him, for that would be regarded as undue indulgence and therefore bad for the boy. So, what with scolding and chiding, he becomes very much like a stray dog that has lost its master.

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His own home is the only paradise that a boy of fourteen can know. To live in a strange house with strange people is little short of torture; while it is the height of bliss to receive the kind looks of women and never to suffer their slights. It was an anguish to Phatik to be an unwelcome guest in his aunt’s house, constantly despised and slighted by this elderly woman.

If she ever asked him to do anything for her, he would be so overjoyed that his joy would seem exaggerated; and then she would tell him not to be so stupid, but to get on with his lessons. ’ There was no more backward boy in the whole school than Phatik. He gaped and remained silent when the teacher asked him a question, and like an overladen ass patiently suffered the many thrashings that were meted out to him. When other boys were out at play, he stood wistfully by the window and gazed at the roofs of the distant houses. And if by chance he espied children playing on the open terrace of a roof, his heart would ache with longing.

One day he summoned up all his courage, and asked his uncle, ‘Uncle, when can I go home ?’ His uncle and. ‘Wait till the holidays come.’ But the holidays would not come till October and there was still a long time to wait.

One day Phatik lost his lesson book. Even with the help of books he had found it very difficult to prepare his lesson. But, now, it became impossible. Day after day the teacher caned him unmercifully. He became so abjectly miserable that even his cousins were ashamed to own him. They began to jeer and insult him more than even the other boys did. At last he went to his aunt and told her that he had lost his book.

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With an expression of the greatest contempt she burst out : ‘You great, clumsy, country lout ! How can I afford to buy you new books five times a month, when I have my own family to look after ?’ That night, on his way back from school, Phatik had a bad headache and a shivering fit. He felt that he was going to have an attack of malaria. His one great fear was that he might be a nuisance to his aunt.

The next morning Phatik was nowhere to be seen. Search in the neighbourhood proved futile. The rain had been pouring in torrents all night, and those who went out to look for the boy were drenched to the skin. At last Bishamber asked the police to help him. At nightfall a police van stopped at the door of the house. It was still raining and the streets were flooded. Two constables carried Phatik out in their arms and placed him before Bishamber. He was wet through from head to foot, covered with mud, while, his face and eyes were flushed with fever and his limbs were trembling. Bishamber carried him in his arms and took him inside the house. When his wife saw him, she exclaimed : ‘What a heap of trouble this boy has given us ! Hadn’t you better send him home ?’

Phatik heard her words and sobbed aloud : ‘Uncle, I was just going home; but they dragged me back again.’ The fever rapidly increased, and throughout the night.the boy was delirious. Bishamber brought in a doctor. Phatik opened his eyes, and looking up to the ceiling said vacantly ‘Uncle, have the holidays come yet ?’

Bishamber wiped the tears from his eyes and took Phatik’s thin burning hands in his own and sat by his side through the night. Again the boy began to mutter, till at last his voice rose almost to a shriek. ‘Mother !’ he cried, ‘don’t beat me like that Mother ! I am telling the truth.’

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The next day Phatik, for a short time, became conscious. His eyes wandered round the room as if he expected someone to come. At last, with an air of disappointment, his head sank back on the pillow. With a deep sigh he turned his face to the wall. Bishamber read his thoughts, and bending down his head whispered ‘Phatik, I have sent for your mother.

The day dragged on. The doctor said in a troubled voice that the boy’s condition was very critical. Phatik began to cry out: ‘By the mark three fathoms. By the mark four fathoms. By the mark.’ Many times had he heard the sailors on the river-steamers calling out the mark on the lead line. Now he was himself plumbing an unfathomable sea.

Later in the day Phatik’s mother burst into the room like a whirlwind and rocking herself to and fro from side to side, began to moan and cry. Bishamber tried to calm her, but she flung herself on the bed, and cried ‘Phatik, my darling, my darling.’Phatik stopped his restless movements for a moment. His hands ceased beating up and down. He said ‘Eh ?’ The mother cried again: ‘Phatik, my darling, my darling.’Very slowly Phatik’s eyes wandered, but he could no longer see the people around his bed. At last he murmured ‘Mother, the holidays have come.’

Our Casuarina Tree Summary

Some Glimpses of Ancient Indian Thought and Practices Summary

Some Glimpses of Ancient Indian Thought and Practices” offers a window into the rich tapestry of ancient Indian civilization, showcasing its profound philosophies, cultural practices, and contributions to human knowledge. Read More Class 10th English Summaries.

Some Glimpses of Ancient Indian Thought and Practices Summary

Some Glimpses of Ancient Indian Thought and Practices Introduction:

In this chapter, the author tells about the traditions and practices prevalent in ancient India. He says that our old philosophy teaches us the spirit of detachment. But now corruption, greed and lust for easy money have overshadowed this noble philosophy. Our old philosophy teaches us that the whole universe is one family. But now we have forgotten this philosophy. In ancient India, there was no discrimination on the basis of caste, creed or sex. But now such discrimination is quite prevalent. Women are not getting their rightful place in the society. The practice of female foeticide has become very common.

Some Glimpses of Ancient Indian Thought and Practices Summary & Translation in English

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In a fight between the demons’ and the gods once, the demons were having an Upper hand. In desperation and anxiety, the gods went to Lord Vishnu to find out as to how they could vanquish the demons. The Lord advised them to get a mighty sword (ah underbolt, Vajarpatt) prepared from he bones of some great sage. Accordingly; he gods approached the sage Dadhichi, great saint. Dadhichi took no time in laying down his life so that his bones could be made into an invincible weapon (amoghastra). This victory of the good over evil is the rarest of the rare examples of great renunciation and sacrifice that this culture teaches.

Who can forget the supreme sacrifice of the young sons of Sri Guru Gobind Singh ? They chose to be bricked alive for the sake of their faith and the canons of justice and true liberty. Our philosophy and thought teach us to renounce , to sacrifice, to give away in charity in the real spirit of detachment. ‘Idam naa mam’ (This does not belong to me) is the real spirit behind the yajnas we are called upon to perform frequently in our homes. Should corruption, greed and lust for easy money have any place in a country rich with such noble and lofty traditions ?

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The elder ones of this country, as per tradition coming down from thousands of years to this day, consider it a divine and blessed duty to feed the birds flying in the sky, the animals moving about on. this earth and the insects living in small holes inside the earth. This noble tradition is ocular proof of the fact that the people of this country believe in the unity of life, anywhere and everywhere.

‘Vasudhev Kutumbukam’, the entire Universe is one family, is the basic thought that works here and in the various such ceremonies like the tradition of ‘langar’ in the holy temples and Gurudwaras and the message of the holy Gurus contained in the directive: ‘Eat only after you have shared your meal with others, (Wand chakra).’ This idea of distribution applies not to food only; it extends well up to the entire resources and funds that are available to man. Do we still need to be taught to love the entire mankind as our kith and king and respect the sanctity of life through total non-violence

Once, the story goes, king Janaka of Maithil (present Bihar) called a meeting of the scholars to discuss some ticklish issue based on high philosophic thought. A well-known sage named Ashtavakra (so called – because of his deformed body) was also invited to this meeting. As Ashtavakara entered the portals of the palace hall and walked up the passage, some scholars already present there burst into a derisive laughter. How could such a deformed and misshapen person discuss high philosophy, they felt.

Ashtavakra thundered back to the king, “O King ! I feel ashamed of being invited to this assembly of skinners(persons who deal in animal skins; Charamkars). It is only a skinner who measures intelligence or status of a person from his skin or physical looks or the colour and shape of his skin or body.”

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This put the entire assembly to shame and brought them to their knees to beg pardon of this great saint. Colour of the skin or shape of the body has never been a measure of intelligence or status in this country. Lord Rama’s eating of the tasted berries from a Bheel woman (a Shudra woman who used to sprinkle water on the earth with the help of a leather bag) is a sufficient proof of the fact that there was never any discrimination on the basis of caste, creed or profession of a person in ancient India. One is here also reminded of what the enlightened sage, Swami Vivekananda, said to a lady in America who laughed at his ‘simple’ dress : “Madam, in your country, it is the tailor who makes a man; in my country it is the intrinsic worth and character of a person that make him or her great.”

Isn’t it unwise to support, tacitly or otherwise, any talk of such discrimination on such frivolous bases today ? The history of this great land is full of examples where no auspicious function was considered to be held properly without the participation of women. So much so, that if no woman could somehow make it to the function, a statue of the woman was created to mark her auspicious presence. This only proves that a woman in this great land was never looked upon as an object of lust or sex; she was always considered a devi (goddess), Kanjak (a young, unmarried girl child fit to be worshipped), the mother of mankind, the ardhangini, the inseparable but equal wheel of the rat ha (chariot) of life.

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This fitly explains Chhatrapati Shivaji’s bowing his head before a woman and respectfully restoring her dignity Shivaji’s bowing his head before a woman and respectfully restoringid her dignity as a mother when some misguided soldiers of his victorious army presented her to Shivaji as gift. This too explains that the great wars in both the sacred epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, were fought for defending and upholding the honour of this matrishakti, the powerful motherhood. Does this not put those to shame who think of resorting to female foeticide or denying the female sex their rightful place in the affairs of the world ?

Dream – Children: A Reverie Summary

A Gift for Christmas Summary

A Gift for Christmas Summary

A Gift for Christmas” is a heartwarming short story that captures the true spirit of the holiday season and the joy of giving. Read More Class 10th English Summaries.

A Gift for Christmas Summary

A Gift for Christmas Introduction:

Jim and Della were husband and wife. They had great love for each other. There were two precious possessions in their house. One was Jim’s gold watch. The other was Della’s hair. It was Christmas eve. They wished to give something wonderful as a gift to each other. But they had no money to buy the gifts. Della sold her hair and bought a platinum chain for Jim’s gold watch. On the other hand, Jim sold his gold watch and bought a beautiful set of combs for Della’s hair. But when they came back home, they found that their gifts were of no use to them. Jim was without his watch and Della was without her hair. But their love for each other made the Christmas eve most enjoyable for them.

A Gift for Christmas Summary & Translation in English

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One dollar and eighty-seven cents. That was all. And sixty cents of it was in pennies. Pennies saved one and two at a time. Three times Della counted it. And the next day would be Christmas. There was clearly nothing that Della could do except to throw herself on the dirty little couch and cry. While Della is crying let us take a look at her home which is a furnished flat at $8 a week. You see signs of poverty

wherever you turn your eyes. What else can you expect1 when Della’s husband, Mr. James Dillingham Young, earns just2 $20 a week ? Della finished crying. She went up to the looking-glass and began to powder her cheeks. Then she stood by the window and looked out dully at a grey cat walking on a grey fence in a grey backyard. Tomorrow would be Christmas Day, and she had only $1.87 with which to buy Jim a present. She had been saving every penny she could for months, with this result. Twenty dollars a week doesn’t go far. Expenses had been greater than she had calculated. They always are. Only $1.87 to buy a present for Jim. Her Jim. Oh, the many happy hours she had spent planning for something nice for him . Something fine and rare, worthy of the honour of being owned by Jim.

Suddenly Della turned away from the window and stood before the glass. Her eyes were shining brilliantly, but her face had lost its colour all of a sudden, Rapidly she pulled down her hair and let it fall to its full length.Now, there were two possessions of the James Dillingham Youngs in which they both took great pride. One was Jim’s gold watch that had been his father’s and his grandfather’s. The other was Della’s hair. Della let fall her beautiful hair and it looked like a cascade of brown waters.

It reached below her knees. Quickly and nervously she combed it and did it up again. For a minute she faltered. Tears appeared in her eyes.

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That was only for a moment. She put on her old brown jacket, she put on her old brown hat. With her eyes shining brightly she fluttered out of the door and down the stairs to the street. She stopped at a shop with the sign ‘Mme Sofronio. Hair Goods of All Kinds’. The shop was located on the second floor. Della ran up the stairs.
‘Will you buy my hair ?’ asked Della.
‘I buy hair,’ said Madame. ‘Take your hat off and let me have a look at it.’
Down came the brown cascade.

‘Twenty dollars,’ said Madame, lifting the beautiful hair with her experienced hand.
‘Give it to me quickly,’ said Della.
Della spent the next two hours in the stores eagerly looking for Jim’s present. She found it at last. It surely had been made for Jim and no one else. There was no other like it in any of the stores. It was a platinum watch-chain, simple but well made. It was worthy of the watch. As soon as she saw it she decided that it was the right present for Jim. She paid twenty-one dollars for it and hurried home with the 87 cents that remained.

When Della reached home, pleased with the present, she grew nervous as she thought calmly about what she had done. She looked at the reflection in the mirror long, carefully, and critically. She brought out her curling irons and began to curl her hair carefully. The tiny curls made her look like a schoolboy. ‘If Jim doesn’t kill me,’ she said to herself, ‘before he takes a second look at me, he’ll say I look like a boy. But what could I do ? Oh ! What could I do with a dollar and eighty-seven cents ?’

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At seven o’clock the coffee was made and everything arranged to get dinner ready. Jim was never late. Della sat on the corner of the table near the door with the watch chain in hater hand. Then she heard his step on the stairs. She turned white for just a moment. She prayed, ‘Please God, make him think I am still pretty.’

The door opened and Jim stepped in and closed it. He looked thin and very serious. Poor fellow, he was only twenty- two and he was burdened with a family . He needed a new overcoat and he was without gloves. Jim’s eyes were fixed on Della, and there was an expression in them that she could not read, and it terrified her. It was not anger, nor surprise. He simply stared at her with a strange expression on his face.

Della got off the table and moved towards him. ‘Jim, darling,’ she cried,‘don’t look at me that way. I had my hair cut off and sold it because I had to buy a Christmas present for you. I just had to do it. My hair grows so fast you don’t mind, do you ? Say Merry Christmas ! Jim, and let’s be happy. You don’t know what a nice what a beautiful present I’ve got for you.’

You’ve cut off your hair ?’ asked Jim, speaking with difficulty.‘Cut it off and sold it,’ said Della. ‘Don’t you like me just as well , without my hair ?’ Jim looked about the room curiously . You say, your hair is gone ?’ he said with an air almost of disbelief .You needn’t look for it,’ said Della. ‘It’s sold, I tell you sold and gone. It’s Christmas Eve, Jim. Be good to me, because I did it all for you.’

Jim seemed to wake up at last, and to understand. He kissed Della. He suddenly remembered that he had brought something for Della too. He drew a package from his overcoat pocket and threw it upon the table.

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‘Don’t make any mistake, Della,’ he said, ‘about me. Whatever happens I shall always love you just the same. Now open the package and you will understand why I behaved as I did.’ Della’s white fingers quickly opened the package. And then at first a scream of joy followed by a quick feminine change to tears.

For there lay The Combs the set of combs, side and back, that Della had seen in a Broadway window and liked so much. They were beautiful combs, so expensive and they were hers now. But alas, the hair in which she was to wear them was sold and gone ! She took them up lovingly, smiled through her tears and said, ‘My hair grows so fast, Jim !’
And then Della jumped up like a little cat and cried, ‘Oh, oh !’

Jim had not yet seen his beautiful present. She held it out to him eagerly on her open palm.
‘Isn’t it lovely, Jim ? I hunted all over town to find it. You’ll have to look at your watch a hundred times a day now. Give me your watch. I want to see how it looks on it.’

Instead of obeying, Jim sat down on the couch and put his hands under the back of his head and smiled.
‘Dell,’ said he, ‘let’s put our Christmas presents away and keep them awhile. They are too nice to use just at present. I sold the watch to get the money to buy your combs. And now please get the dinner ready.’

Goodbye Party for Miss Pushpa T.S Summary

Secret of Happiness Summary

Secret of Happiness Summary

When we think about life’s ultimate pursuit, one word invariably comes to mind: happiness. The pursuit of happiness has been a constant throughout human history, driving individuals, societies, and cultures to explore the depths of human experience. The Secret of Happiness Summary encapsulates a myriad of perspectives, strategies, and wisdom that have been passed down through generations. Read More Class 10th English Summaries.

Secret of Happiness Summary

Secret of Happiness Introduction:

In this chapter, the author tells us how we can gain success in our life. He says that we should realize our powers. He says that an average man uses only twenty percent of his mental powers. Every man has a big store of unused powers. If he can use this power, he will be able to master all circumstances. Fear is one of the biggest enemies of man. If we wish to become adept in the art of living, we must learn to conquer our fears. We should have faith in ourselves. If we have faith in ourselves, we can be free from every fear. And then we shall have total peace of mind.

Secret of Happiness Summary & Translation in English

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Dynamics of Self-Realization

The greatest day in any individual’s life is when he begins for the first time to realize himself. It happened to a college student friend of mine once with dramatic suddenness. He was as unsuccessful in his studies as he was efficient upon the athletic field. Destiny, however, has its own strange ways. One day in a class in Psychology, our student friend suddenly became enthralled as the professor described how the average man fails because he does not learn to control and consolidate his powers. He used the familiar illustration of the burning glass. The rays of the sun, falling upon a piece of paper, have little effect. Let them, however, be drawn by the burning glass to a focus and they create an intense heat which will quickly burn a hole in the paper.

The professor pointed out that the man who succeeds is the one who can draw his dissipated and therefore futile powers to a focus . Our student said that in a flashing illumination he saw the cause of his own failure and oblivious of all in the room and under the spell of a veritable new birth leaped to his feet, crying, “I see it; I see it.” What had happened ? He had met himself, a new self, his real self, which he never before had seen and the revelation changed him from a failure to a potential success, the possibilities of which were later abundantly realized. He was now a grand success in whatever he chose to do.

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You Are Greater than You Think.

In his famous address on ‘The Energies of Men’, William James, a geat psychologist, said, “Men habitually use only a small part of the powers which they possess and which they might use under appropriate circumstances.” A scientist is reported recently to have said that the average man uses but twenty percent of his brain power. When you think of some people, that sounds like optimism. Think of it – you are using, if you are an average person, only one fifth of your mental capacity.

Consider what you could make of life if you increased that by only fifty percent. In the personality of every individual there is a great reservoir of unused power. But in many of us just a miserable little trickle is getting through, and on that we live and do our work. The great secret of life is to put a key into the lock, turn back the sluice gates and let that power, like a terrific stream, flow into your mind and personality. It will transform you into a person of strength and effectiveness,well able to meet and master all circumstances. The important thing to emphasize is that it is a source of inward power by which weak personalities can become strong; divided personalities can become unified; hurt minds can be healed; and the secret of peace and poise attained.

The Escape from Fear
A British publishing house issued, some years ago, a volume of sermons, under the title, If I Could Preach Only Once. One of these sermons was by Gilbert Chesterton, “If I had only one sermon to preach,” Chesterton declared, “it would be sermon against fear.”

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Why should this eminent man of letters 11 single out so ordinary an adversary? First of all, because fear is one of man’s most common enemies. It touches every one of us in some way. Many people, for example, have financial fears. We have fears of ill health, anticipating the direful consequences of being overtaken by some bodily affliction. We allow ourselves to be made miserable by fear of what the future holds or fears of the consequences of past acts and decisions. Fears of one kind and another haunt us and cast a shadow over our happiness.

No person is at his best or in full control of his powers if he is the victim of fear. In many ways fear lays its paralyzing hand upon an individual and becomes a chief obstacle to the full development of personality and to the achievement of success in life. The person who wishes to become adept in the art of living must learn to conquer and subdue his fears.

This is a problem common to us all, and I want to state at the outset the encouraging fact that any and every individual can escape from fear. Remember this, however, only you can conquer your fears. Others may help you but ultimately you must do it yourself. The first step and, for that matter, a large part of the campaign against one’s fears is to get a complete and thorough. going knowledge of them. Bring them out into the light of day and watch them shrivel up.

A fear is not unlike a ghost. It frightens you in the gloom, but there isn’t much to it when you get it into the light. Most of the things one fears never happen; at least they do not amount to anything. As one frog in a pond may sound like a hundred when one is trying to sleep, so one little fact may be enlarged by mental fear and distorted imaging out of all proportion to its real size.

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Once in a lonely cabin1 on a dark night, deep in the North Woods, I heard on the porch noises that sent a shiver up my spine. It sounded like the cautious approach of several intruders. I sat transfixed , rooted to my chair, with every hair seemingly standing on end. Newspaper accounts of a recent murder in that section flashed across my mind. This is the end, I thought, but I was far from being prepared to die. I didn’t want to die; I wanted to get out of there.

Finally, unable to stand the suspense longer and desperation lending bravado,leaped to the door and flung it open, expecting to see a whole array of gangsters with machine guns and pistols. Instead, a little chipmunk scurried off into the darkness, leaving me limp and mortified but yet the learner of a great lesson, namely, that it is very salutary to get a good look at your fears, and that when you do, they are much less impressive than you had imagined them to be.

Faith in God

A great Japanese, Kagawa, a preacher and social worker, once visited our country. Everyone noted that he carried about himself a sense of peace and poise, an inner strength and confidence that was truly remarkable. Kagawa had discovered a priceless secret, and he gave us his secret by saying, that if one will do as he did, ‘immerse oneself over a long period in the grace of God’, one will enter into a profound calm that nothing can destroy. Kagawa said that encountering mobs, threatened by soldiers, hurt by opponents, the calm never left him. His eyesight was threatened; disease afflicted him; but he never lost his calm. He testified that he was often amazed by the depth of this peace. This he assured us he had found in God. In that relationship he lost all his fears.

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There is the real escape from fear. Get a deep, unshakable faith in the fact that you are not alone, but that God watches over you and cares for you and will bring you through all difficulties. Then you will have total peace of mind. Confidence, not fear, will be yours forever.

Invocation Summary

Where Is Science Taking Us Summary

Where Is Science Taking Us Summary

Where Is Science Taking Us” is an insightful exploration of the trajectory of scientific progress and its potential impact on humanity’s future. Read More Class 10th English Summaries.

Where Is Science Taking Us Summary

Where is Science Taking Us Introduction:

In this chapter, the writer analyses the aims and the ultimate goal of science. He says that science has so far limited itself to material things. It has given man immense power over his material environment. But in non-material things such as charity, tolerance, forbearance, justice, mercy and understanding – science has been helpless. The writer says that the ultimate goal of science should be to make life worthwhile. And it can be done only by the advancement of non-material things. The writer hopes that one day science will bring about a functional improvement in the human mind and give it greater power of reasoning and understanding. He hopes that man will then have sufficient reason and understanding to abolish war.

Where is Science Taking Us? Summary & Translation in English:

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When man first began to think, he asked himself the deepest of all questions a question which you have undoubtedly asked yourself many times : What is the Meaning of Life ? What is it all about ? Where are we all going ? What drives men ever forward to work and worry ? And now there’s this other big question a newer question which is beginning to force itself into our notice. One that is not ages old that has not been with us since man first began to think. It is : Where is Science Taking Us?

First, where is science taking us with regard to ethical and spiritual values ? We know what it is doing with regard to material things, for material things are its daily business; but what is it doing with regard to non-material things ? If the answer were ‘nothing at all’, that would be bad enough; but the actual answer is ‘less than nothing’. Here science is actually doing less than nothing. Its material teachings have been so over-emphasized that many people are floundering and wondering whether after all man is but a machine animated by forces over which he has no control.

Let’s concentrate on material things, the things that form the very stronghold of science. Look at the machine, for instance. This is the age of the machine. Machines are everywhere in the fields, in the factory, in the home, in the street, in the city, in the country, everywhere. To fly, it is not necessary to have wings; there are machines. To swim under the sea it is not necessary to have gills ; there are machines. To kill our fellow men in overwhelming numbers, there are machines. Petrol machines alone provide ten times more power than all human beings in the world. In the busiest countries, each individual has six hundred human slaves in his machines.

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What are the consequences of this abnormal power ? Before the war, it looked as though it might be possible, for the first time in history, to provide food and clothing and shelter for the teeming population of the world every man, woman and child. This would have been one of the greatest triumphs of science. And yet, many a time especially during the war we have seen the world crammed full of food and people hungry. For that’s the way of science and the machine age. Science produces the goods, it makes the goods, but has no control over the consequences.

The machine age gives us year by year more hours of leisure but it fails to teach us how to use them. It gives us mechanical habits of mind and represses the spirit of adventure except along machine- made lines. We will need all our creative powers to think our way out of the social problems which science has created for us.

It is science that has given us the unexpected redistribution of the age groups. Almost every year, some modern drug adds a little more to the average span of life, until the upper group is overcrowded. In the United States, for instance, there are already nine million people over the age of sixty. (This talk was delivered around the 1950’s.) In fifteen years’ time, this number will reach the astonishing figure of forty-five million. Who is to keep them ? It will need some readjustment.

And so science goes on raising its problems. Compared with our fundamental question What is Life ? these problems may seem to be of less importance. But they are not really so.

What is happening is that science is creating problems faster than they can be solved. Man is struggling in a sort of vicious circle, always striving to catch up and never getting nearer. And there are no signs that the glut of discoveries is coming to an end. War is the worst example; science has pushed it so far forward that ethics 1 and morals are floundering hopelessly behind.

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It makes one sometimes ask : What is science really after? What are its aims? What is its goal? Its aims seem to be obvious. They are material, of course. One aim is the complete understanding, indeed the conquest, of man’s environment ; the conquest of everything material, big or small, bringing all powers within man’s reach. The other aim is the understanding of all the mysteries that lie within the human body the material mysteries, the innumerable chemical and physical actions that make the body work.

If these are the apparent aims of science, surely they cannot represent the ultimate goal. The ultimate goal, if there is such a thing, must be the understanding of everything that makes life worth while, the enrichment of all that life means. That goes beyond material things; for man needs more than food and shelter and clothing and the understanding of what goes on within his stomach.

What is really needed in the world today, perhaps more than ever before, is not some new world-shattering discovery in nuclear physics, or some breath taking discovery in chemistry or medicine. The advance for which the world is waiting, beyond any doubt, is a small advance a slight advance in charity, in understanding, forbearance, tolerance, justice and mercy. That is what the world is waiting for, and waiting rather anxiously. But charity, and tolerance, and forbearance, and the understanding of one another are non-material matters. And in non-material things in the simplest social things science has been helpless. It cannot even help us to distinguish good from evil.

Maybe this will not always be so. Who knows ? It is quite probable that some day science will effect an improvement in the human brain itself. Not a structural improvement, for in structure the human brain is the greatest miracle of all; its understanding will come last. But there might well be a functional improvement. That is far from fantastic. The advances in science might one day well increase the capacity and reasoning power of the human brain.

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I should say there is little doubt that man will one day improve on the natural man, raise his intellectual status, and give himself greater power of reasoning and understanding. He might have sufficient reason and understanding to abolish war. Whether that will be so, whether and when he will have a better understanding of his fellow men that remains to be seen. It brings us back to the question Where is Science Taking Us ? Despite the present vicissitudes, we are going somewhere. There are trouble some times ahead. But those who fear for the future are the craven (cowardly) in spirit; for life is becoming more and more interesting, intriguing and exciting. I wish I had another hundred years

The Diamond Necklace Summary