Ghadari Babas in Kalapani Jail Summary

Ghadari Babas in Kalapani Jail Summary

The narrative of “Ghadari Babas in Kalapani jail” is a tribute to the spirit of revolution that burned inside those people. It sheds mild on the Ghadari movement, a sizeable yet frequently disregarded a part of India’s freedom war. The summary explores the adventure of these revolutionaries who left at the back of their homes to rally for India’s independence from British colonial rule.

Ghadari Babas in Kalapani Jail Summary

Ghadari Babas in Kalapani Jail Introduction:

This extract has been taken from Dr. Harish K. Puri’s book Ghadar Movement. Dr. Harish K. Puri is former professor of Guru Nanak Dev University. He has written extensively on political movements, religion and terrorism. In this extract he gives a harrowing account of the Cellular Jail (called Kala Pani) situated in Port Blair (Andaman and Nicobar Islands). This Cellular Jail (Kala Pani) was set up by the Britishers in far away Andaman Island. The main purpose of the Britishers was to isolate, punish and torture the freedom fighters of India during the early decades of the 20th century.

Ghadari Babas in Kalapani Jail Summary in English

Ghadar Party was an organisation founded by Punjabi Indians in the United States of America and Canada. Its object was to free India from the British rule. Its important members were Lala Hardayal, V.G. Pingley, Sant Baba Wasakha Singh Dadehar, Sohan Singh Bhakna, Kartar Singh Sarabha, and Rashbehari Bose. The World War I broke out in 1914.

The Ghadar Party members returned to Punjab to agitate for rebellion alongside the Babbar Akali Movement. In 1915, they started revolutionary activities in Central Punjab. They tried to stage revolts, but their attempts were crushed by the British government. The British government in India set up a special jail to teach these brave fighters for the freedom a lesson.

The Cellular Jail was set up in Port Blair. It is popularly known as Kala Pani. It is situated far away from the Indian mainland. It is also described as the British version of Devil’s Island’. In the beginning, the penal colony was created to isolate and torture for life the members of the Ghadar Party. The newly made jail was opened in 1906. Bengali revolutionaries convicted in conspiracy cases were the first group of 27 political prisoners brought there.

They were followed by others of the Nasik Conspiracy Case, such as V. D. Savarkar and his brother Ganesh Savarkar. The Ghadarites were the largest single group of political prisoners sentenced to transportation for life. Forty of these were brought there in December 1915.

More than 30 from the Lahore Supplementary and Mandlay Conspiracy cases followed later. Other groups of revolutionaries were young. Many among the Ghadar prisoners were quite old. Nidhan Singh was 60 years old; Kehar Singh 62; Kala Singh 55; Gurdit Singh 50 and a large number of them 40 years and above.

There were many difficulties for the prisoners. The weather was bad. The area had many mosquitoes. There were blood-sucking leeches. Many were frequently sick. They suffered from high fever, tuberculosis. They had to work on the oil-mill and extract a minimum of 30 pounds of coconut oil. They had to pound coconut husk to produce coir threads.

Summary Ghadari Babas in Kalapani Jail

If the quantity produced was less, the prisoners were abused and whipped with lashes. Prisoners cried loudly as blood flowed out of their skins. Communication between the prisoners was not possible as each one of them was kept in a small cell.

The recorded accounts of victims and eye-witnesses of over a dozen prominent revolutionaries provided heart-rending details of torture of political prisoners. All accounts refer to the Jailor David Barry, the Superintendent Murray and the Chief Commissioner as butchers and children of Satan. Some old criminals had been appointed as jamadars, petty officers and warders who got pleasure out of torturing political prisoners.

Barin Ghosh, brother of Aurobindo Ghosh, called them smaller gods who would abuse, humiliate and ill-treat the political prisoners and made their life most miserable. Some stories were smuggled out of the jail by Savarkar. They related to young Nani Gopal’s sharp and shrill cries because of whip lashes, his hunger strike that continued for 72 days and the long strike against tortures. The suicide committed by Indu Bhushan raised a storm in the country.

On arrival there, the Ghadarites learnt about the sufferings, the hard struggle of resistance of Bengali and Marathi prisoners. In the beginning, they decided not to suffer any indignity with a determined resistance. Parma Nand Jhansi was abused and threatened by the Jailor Barry for not producing the required quantity of oil. Parma Nand hit the jailor Barry.

As the jailor fell down, Parma Nand Jhansi was mercilessly beaten by the warders. The fall of Barry and the horrible torture of Jhansi created a stir in the jail. In another case of cruelty, Chattar Singh who slapped the Superintendent of Jail, Murray hard, was put in a cage.

Bhan Singh was beaten so hard that he died in the hospital. Resistance and most cruel punishment took the life of Ram Rakha within two months of his arrival in the jail. Eight Ghadarites lost their life in jail. They continued their repeated strikes from work and hunger strikes led by Bhakna. They were joined by 25 others for their rights as political prisoners.

Summary of Ghadari Babas in Kalapani Jail

The number of those who joined the strike rose to 100. Jyotish Chandra Pal passed blood in stool and went mad after a month. He was removed to a mental hospital. Prithvi Singh continued his hunger strike for four months. In the history of Andaman such a long strike had never been organised.

The impact of the strike was very powerful. The jail authorities were forced to discontinue some of the practices of bad treatment of political prisoners. The revolutionaries sang patriotic songs and Vande Matram, recited Gurbani and did not care for the harshest physical punishment.

They were fighting against brutal forces with soul-force. They were either released in 1921 or transferred to jails in the mainland. Bhakna explained that the crux of the songs which the revolutionaries sang in the jails was : ‘Hey Matribhoomi, this is true that we could not liberate you, but so long as even one of our comrades is alive, he will sacrifice everything to remove your chains.


In Celebration of Being Alive Summary

In Celebration of Being Alive Summary

The verses of “In Celebration of Being Alive” elegantly capture the essence of human experience. The collection resonates with the ebbs and flows of life, from moments of quiet contemplation to bursts of exuberant celebration. Through the interplay of words, it illustrates the interconnectedness of all living things, reminding us that we are part of a vast and intricate tapestry.

In Celebration of Being Alive Summary

In Celebration of Being Alive Introduction:

Dr. Christiaan Barnard made history in the field of medicine. He made attempts to transplant the human heart. This lesson has actually been taken from a speech by him. Dr. Barnard talks about the lesson he took from two youngsters about the business of living. Those who have a brave and positive attitude in life move forward in spite of physical suffering. They do not cry or weep. Such people ignore all pain. They become an example for others. They teach us the real art of living. We should celebrate being alive.

In Celebration of Being Alive Summary in English

Dr. Christiaan Barnard is about to reach the end of his career as a heart surgeon. He thinks why people suffer so much. There is a lot of suffering in the world. In the year of this lecture, 125 million children were born. 12 million might not reach the age of one and another six million would die before the age of five. Out of the rest many would end up as mental or physical cripples.

He had these thoughts from an accident which he had a few years ago. His wife and he were one day crossing a street. The next moment a car had hit him and knocked him into his wife. She was thrown into the other lane and hit by a car coming from the opposite side. During the next few days in the hospital, he exprienced pain and fear and also anger.

He could not understand why he and his wife had to suffer. His eleven ribs were broken. His lung was holed. His wife had a badly fractured shoulder. He asked himself why all this should happen to them. He had a young baby and his wife was required to take care of him.

If his father had been alive, he would have told him that it was God’s will that he was suffering. God tests human beings through making them suffer. Suffering ennobles a man. As a doctor Barnard sees nothing noble in suffering. Nor does he see any nobility in the crying of a lonely child, in a ward at night. He had his first knowledge of the suffering of children when he was a boy.

His father told him about his brother who had died several years earlier. He had been born with an abnormal heart. If he had been born in the present age, probably his heart problem would have been corrected. But in those days good heart surgery was not available.

Summary In Celebration of Being Alive

As a doctor, Barnard had always found the suffering of children very heart breaking. Children believe that the doctors are going to help them. If doctors cannot help them, they accept their fate. They go through painful surgery and afterwards, they don’t complain.

One morning, several years ago, he saw what he calls the Grand Prix of Cape Town’s Red Cross Children’s Hospital. It opened his eyes. He felt that he was missing something in all his thinking about suffering.

That morning a nurse had left a breakfast trolley. It was not attended by anyone. Two persons took the trolley away by force. They were a driver and a mechanic. The mechanic was totally blind and the driver had only one arm. Both of them drove the trolley away. The mechanic galloped along behind the trolley with his head down and the driver was seated on the lower deck. He held on with one hand and steered by scraping on his foot on the floor.

People saw them going. They put on a good show. The people laughed encouraged by other patients. The entertainment provided by the blind mechanic and one-handed driver was much better than fun provided by a car race. It was full of solace for Dr. Barnard. The nurse and ward sister caught up with them, scolded them and put them back into bed. The mechanic was seven years old. One night, when his mother and father were drunk, his mother threw a lantern at his father.

The latern broke over the child’s head and shoulders. He suffered some very bad injuries in burns on the upper part of his body and lost both his eyes. He looked horrible. His face was disfigured. When his wound got well, this boy could open his mouth by raising his head. The doctor stopped by to see him after the race. He was shouting that he had won and he was laughing.

The doctor had closed a hole in the heart of the trolley’s driver. He had come back to the hospital because he had a malignant tumour of the bone. A few days before the race, his shoulder and arm were amputated. There was no hope of recovering. After the Grand Prix (the car race) he proudly informed the doctor that the race was a success. The only problem was that the trolley’s wheels were not properly oiled. But he was a good driver and he had full confidence in the mechanic.

The doctor suddenly realised that the two children had given him a useful lesson about getting on the business of living. Business of living is joy in the real sense of living. The business of living is the celebration of being alive. These two children showed to Dr. Barnard that it is not what you have lost that’s important. What is important is what you have been left with.

Two Gentlemen of Verona Summary

Two Gentlemen of Verona Summary

Two Gentlemen of Verona” unfolds inside the realm of Verona, in which the bonds of friendship among the two protagonists, Valentine and Proteus, are positioned to the test once they each fall in love with the identical woman, Silvia. The narrative navigates the demanding situations of loyalty, jealousy, and the dynamics of younger love, weaving a tale of flawed identities, heartfelt confessions, and the pursuit of true happiness.

Two Gentlemen of Verona Summary

Two Gentlemen of Verona Introduction:

The title of this story has been taken from one of the plays of William Shakespeare. The author describes the life of two small boys who love their sister. They are Nicola and Jacopo. They work very hard so that they could pay for the treatment of their sister suffering from tuberculosis (T.B.). The boys’ sacrifice for their sister gives a new hope for society.

Two Gentlemen of Verona Summary in English

‘Two Gentlemen of Verona’ is the story of two brothers, Nicola and Jacopo. They belong to Verona in Italy. (Shakespeare wrote a play of the same title). Nicola is thirteen and Jacopo is twelve. The narrator and his friend meet them when they are driving through the foothills of Alps. They buy a basket of strawberries from them. Then they go to the hotel.

The driver of the narrator told him not to buy fruit from the boys. They would be able to get better fruit in Verona. The next morning they find the two boys at the public square. The boys tell the narrator that they do all sorts of work including guiding tourists. The narrator tells the boys to take him and his friend around the city. They also feel impressed by their manners and behaviour. Despite their untidy clothes, they leave a good impression on the narrator and his friend.

One night, the narrator and his friend see the boys at a deserted square. They were resting on a pavement stone. They are waiting for the last bus from Padua so that they can sell the newspapers. Both the brothers look tired. They are as usual in unclean clothes. The narrator asks them the reason for their not being dressed in clean clothes and for not eating well.

The narrator had thought that the boys were saving money to travel to the States. But the boys tell him that they are not interested in going to the States. They have something else in their mind. They ask the narrator if he can take them to Poleta in his car. The narrator agrees.

They drive down to Poleta the next afternoon. The narrator finds them entering a villa. They tell him that they will stay in the villa for an hour or so and that he can go to a cafe for a drink. After some time, the narrator rings the bell of the villa. A nurse opens the door.

He asks her about two young boys who have just gone to the house. She takes the narrator along and the narrator finds himself in a hospital. He finds Japoco and Nicola sitting at the bedside of their sister. He requests the nurse to tell him everything about the two boys. The nurse tells him their story.

Summary of Two Gentlemen of Verona

The narrator comes to know that the two boys and their sister are the children of a well-known singer at La Scala who was killed during the war. Their house was destroyed and the children had to suffer all kinds of hardships. The German Elite Guards came to their town and their life became more wretched.

The boys joined the resistance movement. They carried errands (messages) to its leaders and informed them of the movements of German troops. Their sister Lucia was suffering from tuberculosis of the spine. She had been in the hospital for the last 12 months. Her brothers visited her in the hospital every week to clear the dues.

The narrator then waits for the boys. He drives them back to the city. He does not tell them what he has learnt about their sister and her ailment. He is impressed by their selfless devotion to their sister. He feels that the selfless devotion to their sister brings new nobility to human life. The young boys’ selfless service of their sister was an indication of the selfless service of the human society.

The Story of My Life Summary

The Story of My Life Summary

The Story of My Life” beautifully encapsulates the essence of individual journeys. The summary highlights the significance of life’s milestones, the turning points that redirect our paths and contribute to the tapestry of our existence. Through evocative anecdotes, it celebrates the emotions and memories that form the cornerstone of our personal narratives.

The Story of My Life Summary

The Story of My Life Introduction:

This essay tells us about the value of good manners. Bad manners are anti-social. But they are not a crime in the eyes of the law and therefore the law does not permit us to hit back if we have been the victims of bad manners. People begin to avoid a man with bad manners. He is not liked by anyone. A person with good manners brings us sunshine. His company is indeed very pleasant.

The Story of My Life Summary in English

This essay deals with little but socially important incidents from daily life. It shows us the importance of words like ‘please’ and ‘thank you’ in our daily life. They settle bitter quarrels and soften bad tempers. The damage done by unkind words is more painful than physical injury.

A lift-man in an office threw a passenger out of the lift as the latter was impolite. He did not use the word ‘please’ while asking him to take him to the top. The author is of the opinion that discourtesy is not a legal offence. If a person knocks another person down because he has broken the law, the former will be acquitted.

But the lift-man was in the wrong because the law does not permit anybody to use violence, if another person is discourteous. Even if a person is discourteous the law will protect him against attack. An uncivil person may be called ill-mannered but he cannot be compelled by the law to say ‘please’. Moral and intellectual damages have nothing to do in this case.

The lift-man was perhaps badly hurt because he considered it a blot on his social position. If he had been kicked on the shin he could have approached law for getting it redressed, but the pain of a wound to self-respect, would last a longer period. If a person’s self-respect is wounded, he remains uneasy till he inflicts such a wound on some other person.

Evil manners start a vicious circle. In Sheridan’s play “The Rivals the father, Sir Anthony Absolute, rebukes the son, Captain Absolute. Captain Absolute goes out and scolds his personal servant Fag. Fag gets relief for his feelings by going into the servants’ quarters and kicking the page boy.

The Story of My Life Summary

Similarly, it is quite possible that the employer, in his turn, had been insulted by his wife who was simply trying to work off the temper which she got from the ill manners of the cook. The cook in his turn was sore because the house-maid had been rude. A bad mood and bad temper cause a widespread infection. They do more harm to the social life than the crimes recognised by the penal code. All the same the law cannot operate in this area because it is so vast.

It is true that no law requires us to be polite. Politeness in speech and manners is not only beneficial for the individual who practises it but also for those around. Bad manners poison the general stream of life. Civility oils the machine of life, makes things easier and keeps human beings in good relationship. It is not a social but a moral obligation.

The writer pays a rich tribute to a bus conductor. With his good behaviour he spread joy around him. A polite word to an impolite person is a sweeter form of revenge than the revenge of throwing stones at him who throws a stone at you.

Although the law does not compel us to be polite yet social practice requires us to be civil. Words like ‘Please’ and ‘Thank you’ do keep the machine of life in a good working order. They teach us co-operation and we can get better work by the use of these words. The author once boarded a bus. He found that he had no money in his pocket. He . was in a fix what to do.

He was expecting that the conductor would call his statement an old trick. But when he told the conductor that he had forgotten to bring money with him, he accepted his explanation and gave him the ticket upto his destination. When the author asked him where he should give him the fare, his simple reply was : “Oh you’ll see me some day all right.” Luckily the author found a shilling in one of the corners of his pocket and he settled the account.

A few days later the author was hurt by the heavy boots of the conductor. But he behaved in a very decent manner and the author did not mind it. The conductor always tried to make his passengers comfortable. A journey with him was a lesson in natural courtesy and good manners. If we are uncivil, others also become uncivil. If we show good manners, others will also behave well.

A cheerful person can make the gloomiest person cheerful. The author feels that it is always better to be on the bus of that conductor when going from one place to another. It is a sound investment to possess good manners. If Wordsworth could get a lesson from the poor leech-gatherer, there is no harm in getting lessons from a person like a bus conductor who has good manners.

On Giving Advice Summary

On Giving Advice Summary

On Giving recommendation” delves into the multifaceted nature of presenting steerage. The precis highlights the significance of lively listening as a foundation for effective advice-giving, allowing one to surely understand the nuances of every other’s situation. through realistic insights, it underscores the importance of tailoring advice to healthy the unique situations and choices of every person.

On Giving Advice Summary

On Giving Advice Introduction:

This essay has been written by Joseph Addison who was an essayist of the eighteenth century. He tried to improve the morality of his readers with his wit. He wrote in a simple and easy to understand language. In this essay he tells us that most people are unwilling to be advised by others. They think that the man who gives them advice is insulting their intelligence.

He also thinks that he is superior to the receiver of advice. The giver of advice thinks that the receiver of advice is inferior in understanding. So advice has to be made pleasant. All the writers of the modern times and olden days have tried their best to make their advice pleasant through humour, wit and in the best-chosen words.

Addison thinks that the best method of making advice acceptable is by means of a fable. A fable is a made-up story. It gives a moral lesson. Readers think that they are advising themselves. So they do not mind being given such an advice.

On Giving Advice Summary in English

We are generally unwilling to receive advice from others. We think that the man who is giving us advice is insulting our understanding and treating us like children or idiots. We consider the advice that we are given for our welfare is actually a piece of rudeness. The person who advises us thinks that he is superior to us. The advice giver thinks that the receiver of advice is defective either in conduct or understanding.

There is nothing so difficult as making the giving of advice pleasant. All the writers of the olden days and the modern times try their level best to make their advice agreeable. Many writers use several ways to make their advice pleasant. Some give us their instructions in the best chosen words, others do so in sweet words of poetry, still others make use of proverbs to give their advice.

Addison thinks that the best way of giving advice is through a made-up story or fable. Giving advice by telling a fable is the best way of giving advice. By listening to advice, in a fable, no body feels insulted. It does not shock the receiver of advice. He does not feel insulted.

On reading a fable, we feel that we are advising ourselves. We read the author for the sake of the story. We consider his moral lesson in the fable as our own conclusion. We do not think that the writer is giving us any advice. We are unable to see or feel the advice in the fable. We are taught by surprise. We become wiser and better without knowing that we are getting wiser and better. By this method, the man feels that he is directing himself.

If we try to examine ourselves we shall find that the mind is pleased when it takes part in any action. It gives the human mind an idea of her own perfections and abilities. This natural pride and ambition of the soul is very much satisfied in the reading of a fable.

In the reading of a fable, the reader is involved in half of the performance. Everything appears to him like a discovery of his own. He is busy all the while in applying characters and circumstances. In olden days, wise men gave advice to their kings through fables. Birbal used to advise Akbar by fables. There is one good example of this nature in a Turkish tale.

The Sultan Mahmood of Turkey had fought many wars with other kings. He was very cruel at home. He filled his kingdom with ruin and desolation. Half of the Persian population was destroyed. The vizier of this great Sultan had pretended to have learned to understand the language of birds. One day the vizier was returning from hunting with his Sultan.

Summary of On Giving Advice

They saw a group of owls. The Sultan wanted to know what the two owls were saying to each other. He ordered his vizier to listen to their talk and give him an account of it. The vizier went near the tree on which the owls sat. He pretended to be very attentive to the owls.

He then came to the Sultan and told him that he had heard a part of the conversation between the two owls. One of these owls had a son and the other had a daughter. They wanted to settle à marriage between the son and the daughter. The father of the son told the father of the daughter that he would consent to the marriage if he would settle upon his daughter fifty ruined villages for her dowry.

The father of the daughter said in his reply that he would give her five hundred villages in place of fifty. The father of the son did .. not want ruined villages.The fable tells us that the Sultan was so touched by the fable. He rebuilt the towns and villages which had been destroyed. From that time, he always worked for the welfare; of his people.

Budgeting Your Time Summary

Budgeting Your Time Summary

In this summary, we’ll explore the art of time budgeting, uncovering strategies to optimize productivity, reduce stress, and achieve a harmonious balance between work and personal pursuits.

Budgeting Your Time Summary

Budgeting Your Time Introduction:

In this chapter, the writer brings out the importance of budgeting our time. We have to budget a thing if its availability is limited in relation to its expenditure. The time at our disposal is also very limited. But the work we have to do in our life is very long. Therefore, we must budget our time. We have to take notice of every moment that is passing. Present is the most important time to do a thing. Time once lost can never be regained. Therefore, we must be punctual in our life. Every moment is precious. Those who forget it, have to repent later when no remedy is possible.

Budgeting Your Time Summary in English

Money is said to be the most important thing in life. Money makes the mare go. The power of money is great, but the power of time is still greater. Money once lost can be regained. But time once lost is lost for ever. If you do not make the best use of time, you are sure to be doomed. There come some moments in life that can make or mar a person’s whole future. We must take notice of such moments.
Budgeting Your Time Summary img-1
They are very precious. One must act in time before it is too late. Those who take no notice of time, have to repent later when there is no remedy. Every second in life is important. Therefore, we must save every second and thus make the best use of time. Man’s life is very short. But he has a lot to do. Every moment is taking us nearer to the grave. Therefore, we must make the best use of our time.

We must be punctual in all our activities. Those who are behind time, are left behind in their life also. An opportunity missed once is missed for ever. It is no use crying over spilt milk. We should not blame the stars when we are ourselves responsible for our failure. Once Yaksha, a god, asked Yudhishthira, “What is the best time for doing a thing ?” Yudhishthira replied, “Now !” The work in hand is the most important work to do. And the present is the most important time to do it. “Now or Never must be the guiding principle in our life. We should never put off till tomorrow what we can do today.

Summary of Budgeting Your Time

Life in the present age has become very fast. A slip of even a second can result in doom for us.. Therefore, every single second has its importance. Every moment of life is precious. Any carelessness towards the importance of time can prove very harmful to any society. Therefore, we must learn to budget our time. We can hope for a good tomorrow only if we know the value of today. Therefore we should never forget the value of NOW in our life.
Swami and Friends Summary

Plants also Breathe and Feel Summary

Plants also Breathe and Feel Summary

Recent scientific discoveries have shed light on the ways in which “Plants also Breathe and Feel Summary” and communicate. Through a process known as transpiration, plants release water vapor from their leaves, akin to our exhalation. Additionally, studies have unveiled an underground network of roots and fungi that enable plants to exchange nutrients and information, suggesting a level of interconnectedness that parallels complex ecosystems.

Plants also Breathe and Feel Summary

Plants also Breathe and Feel Introduction:

Sir Jagdish Chandra Bose was a well-known Indian scientist. He studied animal and plant life. He proved that plants could feel and hear like human beings. To prove this, he designed and built a machine called ‘crescograph’. Scientists at the Paris Science Congress of 1900 were amazed to see this wonderful machine. Jagdish Chandra Bose made a name for himself and his country in the scientific world.

Plants also Breathe and Feel Summary in English

Sir Jagdish Chandra Bose was a well-known Indian scientist. He was born in 1858 in a village in Bengal. He studied Physics at Calcutta (Kolkata) University. Then he went to England for further studies. He graduated from Cambridge and returned to India. He was appointed Professor of Physics in Presidency College, Calcutta (Kolkata).

In those days of British rule, an Indian usually received two-thirds of the salary paid to a European Professor. Jagdish Chandra Bose was given only half of a European Professor’s salary as his appointment was a temporary one. Sir J.C. Bose was a man of principles. He could not bear this injustice. He refused to touch any part of his salary for three years. In the three-year struggle between Bose and the government, Bose was victorious.

Summary of Plants also Breathe and Feel

J. C. Bose now began his experiments. His work made him famous all over the world. He had been interested in animal and plant life since boyhood. He noticed that his wireless receiver showed signs of ‘tiredness’ after it had been in use for some time. But it regained its power after “rest”.

Jagdish Chandra Bose realised that there was a similarity in the behaviour of living and non-living things. He said that plants and animals had a life of their own and could become ‘tired’, ‘depressed or ‘happy’. People laughed at him. They did not take him seriously.

In order to prove that he was right, Jagdish Chandra Bose built a machine called ‘crescograph’. This machine proved that plants had hearts and were capable of feeling. It also indicated that plants had a keen sight. They reacted to rays of light and wireless waves. When J. C. Bose displayed this machine at the Paris Science Congress of 1900, the scientists were greatly amazed. Thus, through his invention, Bose made a name for himself and his country in the scientific world.
The Gita and Swadharma Summary

Grooming of a Boy Summary

As we raise the future leaders and contributors of society, the role of grooming in shaping a young boy’s character and potential cannot be underestimated. The process of grooming goes beyond mere appearances, encompassing a holistic development that shapes values, attitudes, and skills. In this summary, we’ll explore the significance of grooming in a boy’s life, shedding light on its multifaceted impact on personal growth and societal progress.

Grooming of a Boy Summary

Grooming of a Boy Introduction:

This chapter is an extract from a letter. It was written by Abraham Lincoln to his son’s teacher. In this letter, Lincoln wants the teacher to instill some special qualities in his son. He lists those qualities in this letter. He wants the teacher to teach his son how to behave in different situations. He wants his son to be respectful to others. Lincoln wants that his son should grow into a wise, intelligent, brave and patient person. He wants that his son should be able to decide his own path instead of following the crowd.

Grooming of a Boy Summary in English

This chapter is an extract from a letter. The letter was written by Abraham Lincoln to his son’s teacher. In this letter, Lincoln lists some of the things he wants the teacher to teach his son :
Grooming of a Boy Summary img-1
The boy should be taught that all men are not just, and all men are not true. But it is also true that for every scoundrel, there is a hero. For every selfish politician, there is a dedicated leader. For every enemy, there is a friend. He should learn that a dollar earned is of far more value than five found. He should learn to take his defeat as well as victory in an honourable fashion. He should keep away from envy. He should learn the secret of soft laughter. He should learn that the bullies’ are the easiest to defeat.

He should learn about the wonderful world of books, but he should also find time to think about the beauties and mysteries of nature. He should learn that it is far more honourable to fail than to cheat. He should have faith in his own ideas, even if everyone tells him they are wrong. He should learn to be gentle with the gentle, and tough with the tough. He should not follow the crowd or the beaten path of success. He should have the strength to decide his own path. He should listen to all men, but should be able to sift the good from the bad. He should accept only what is good.

Summary Grooming of a Boy 

He should learn to laugh even when he is sad. He should learn that there is no shame in honest tears. He should learn to scoff at cynics and to beware of those who speak too sweetly. He should learn that he could charge the highest price for his body and mind, but he should never sell his heart and soul. He should not listen to the howling mob. If he thinks he is right, he should stand firmly and fight bravely.

He should always have sublime faith in himself because only then he can have sublime faith in mankind. He should have the courage to be impatient and the patience to be brave. At the end, Lincoln tells the teacher that he should treat his son gently, but he shouldn’t cuddle him. He says that only the test of fire makes fine steel. Lincoln calls his son a fine little fellow’. Lincoln knows that it is a big task for the teacher to make his son what he wants him to be. But he requests the teacher to do what he can in this respect.
The Silver Box Summary

How Much Land Does A Man Need? Summary

How Much Land Does A Man Need Summary

In this captivating narrative, we witness the journey of Pahom, a peasant who becomes consumed by his ambition for land. As the story unfolds, Pahom’s relentless pursuit of expansion leads him down a treacherous path, ultimately resulting in a startling revelation about the limits of human greed. “How Much Land Does A Man Need?” succinctly captures the dangers of unchecked ambition, showcasing the harsh consequences that can accompany the insatiable desire for more.

How Much Land Does A Man Need? Summary

How Much Land Does A Man Need? Introduction:

This story by Leo Tolstoy is about the sin of greed. Man’s material needs on this earth are not many. Yet he troubles himself all his life. He wants more and more of wealth. He runs from one sin to the other till he meets his end. Tolstoy has illustrated this idea through the story of Pakhom. Pakhom had an insatiable greed for land.

The more land he had, the more greedy he grew. Once he said, “If I had plenty of land, I shouldn’t fear the devil himself.” On hearing this, the devil decided to try his strength against Pakhom. He thought that he would give Pakhom as much land as he desired, and thus get him into his power. In course of time, Pakhom came to have 125 acres of land, yet he was not satisfied.

Summary of How Much Land Does A Man Need?

He came to know about the land of Bashkir people. There he could get for 1000 roubles as much land as he could go round on his feet in one day. In his greed, he exerted himself too much. Yet he did not stop. He fell down dead just when he had completed the circuit. A grave was dug for him. Six feet from head to heels was all that Pakhom needed. Thus Tolstoy shows that greed brings man’s ruin.
To Autumn Summary

The Dying Detective Summary

The Dying Detective Summary

Have you ever been drawn into a web of mystery and intrigue? Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s captivating tale, “The Dying Detective,” does just that. This article delves into the suspenseful world of this Sherlock Holmes adventure, where deception, manipulation, and ultimate revelation take center stage.

The Dying Detective Summary

The Dying Detective Introduction:

Sherlock Holmes was a detective. He had a friend named Dr Watson. One day, Holmes’ landlady came to Watson’s house and told him that Holmes was critically ill. Watson lost no time in coming to the flat where Holmes lived. He found Holmes lying in bed and feeling very restless. He tried to know about Holmes’ disease and its symptoms. But Holmes didn’t let Watson come near him. He said that it was a horribly contagious disease and Watson knew nothing about it. So he asked Watson to fetch one Mr. Culverton Smith who, he said, had all the knowledge of this disease. Then he told him to come back to him before Mr. Smith reached there. “This is very important,” he said. “Make any excuse so as not to come back with him. Don’t forget, Watson.”

Watson met Mr. Smith and told him about Holmes’ trouble. Mr. Smith at once agreed to go with Watson. But Watson remembered what Holmes had said. So he made an excuse that he had another appointment. When Watson came back, Holmes asked him to go to another room. While Watson was hiding there, he heard the footsteps upon the stairs.

Summary of The Dying Detective

Then he heard the opening and closing of the door. It was Mr. Smith who had come into the room. He felt quite delighted on seeing Holmes in a critical condition. Holmes was the only person who knew that Mr. Smith had killed his nephew Victor, but he had not been able to prove it. Now seeing Holmes dying, Smith confesses it to him that Victor had died the same way Holmes was dying now. He confesses that he had sent Holmes an ivory box by post. The box contained a killer spring. While talking thus, Mr. Smith picks up the box and puts it into his pocket.

At once, Holmes gives up his pretence of a dying man. He applauds his successful acting. This acts as a signal for Inspector Morton who at once comes in. He arrests Mr. Smith on the charges of Victor’s murder and Holmes’ attempted murder. Mr. Smith tries to deny his confession to Holmes, but there is Watson who has witnessed the entire drama.
The Last Ride Together Summary

One Thousand Dollars Summary

One Thousand Dollars Summary

What could one thousand dollars truly buy? Is it just a sum of money or something more profound? This article delves into the multifaceted significance of one thousand dollars, uncovering the diverse ways in which it can impact lives and shape perspectives.

One Thousand Dollars Summary

One Thousand Dollars Introduction:

Robert Gillian receives one thousand dollars from his uncle’s will. But there is also a condition. He has to spend this money sensibly. He goes to Old Bryson for his advice. But Bryson is in no mood of giving him any advice. He talks to Gillian in a satirical tone. Robert offers Miss Lotta Lauriere to buy her a pendant worth one thousand dollars.

But she wants a much more expensive one. He asks a cab driver what he would do with a thousand dollars. He replies that he will open a saloon with it. Robert’s uncle had a ward, Miss Hayden. Perhaps Robert loves her. He gives the entire amount to her and makes a detail about it. Then he goes to the office of his uncle’s lawyers. He tells them that he has spent the money.

Summary of One Thousand Dollars 

They tell him if he has spent the money sensibly, he would get another 5,000 dollars otherwise this amount will go to Miss Hayden. Hearing this, Robert Gillian tears the account of spending money. He tells the lawyers that he has lost the entire money on races. Saying this he leaves the office.
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Summary